Antarctic Safari The Biosphere Antarctic Fauna Toothfish Adelie

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Antarctic Safari The Biosphere

Antarctic Safari The Biosphere

Antarctic Fauna Toothfish Adelie Penguin Brown Skua Fur Seal Killer Whale

Antarctic Fauna Toothfish Adelie Penguin Brown Skua Fur Seal Killer Whale

Terrestrial Ecosystem Ancient glacial deposits and weathering create the soils that make up this

Terrestrial Ecosystem Ancient glacial deposits and weathering create the soils that make up this desert pavement. There is no sign of organic matter yet between the spaces of small rocks, microbes are protected from wind scouring

Primary producers of the food chain Moss Algae Lichen Blue-Green Algae

Primary producers of the food chain Moss Algae Lichen Blue-Green Algae

Loads of moss cover here ! Moss Algae & Moss are most abundant in

Loads of moss cover here ! Moss Algae & Moss are most abundant in the moist or saturated soils found closer to the coast and around ponds and lakes.

The most abundant producer is Blue-Green algae, also known as Cyano-bacteria or Nostock.

The most abundant producer is Blue-Green algae, also known as Cyano-bacteria or Nostock.

Sampling What lives in the soil and under rocks? Biological activity is limited to

Sampling What lives in the soil and under rocks? Biological activity is limited to just the top 10 -12 cm , with soil being permanently frozen at 30 cm depth (permafrost)

Animals that live under the rocks ! Springtail Mite These animals seem to be

Animals that live under the rocks ! Springtail Mite These animals seem to be restricted to areas with high soil moisture and/or access to water.

Springtail Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni (actual size 1. 3 mm), collected from the nz. TABS study

Springtail Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni (actual size 1. 3 mm), collected from the nz. TABS study site (77 o. S) © University of Waikato Feeds on algae, lichens & microbes

Mite Stereotydeus mollis (actual size 0. 7 mm) Feed on algae, lichens & microbes.

Mite Stereotydeus mollis (actual size 0. 7 mm) Feed on algae, lichens & microbes.

Animals that live in the soil Nematode worm – outnumber any other animal in

Animals that live in the soil Nematode worm – outnumber any other animal in the ecosystem. 1 kg of soil might produce 800 – 4000 worms! Tardigrade - also known as waterbears or moss piglets. They live in water and are found in moss and lichens where they feed on plant cells. They feed on algae. Rotifer - eats detritus, dead bacteria and algae. They live in the water and can be found swimming in-between soil particles

Nematodes “Carbon appears to be more important than moisture in defining good habitats for

Nematodes “Carbon appears to be more important than moisture in defining good habitats for nematodes in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica” Click the link below to find out about the Nematode named Rambo. (http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Antarctic_microorganism#cite_note-baskin-5) In most ecosystems the top predator is a large carnivore but in the Dry Valleys it is a nematode worm! Being an omnivore it consumes algae and bacteria. http: //www. aaaspolicyfellowships. org /sci-fly/thin-skin-nematodes

Pitfall Traps This is Gemma. As part of her MSc she is studying the

Pitfall Traps This is Gemma. As part of her MSc she is studying the behaviour of springtails. She has set some traps to collect the ‘wee beasties’.

Lichen Activity This is Rolf. He has invented a device to measure the photosynthetic

Lichen Activity This is Rolf. He has invented a device to measure the photosynthetic activity of lichens. Data is transmitted to his office in Germany so that he knows when they are photosynthesising!

Lichens growing in rocks! • A Lichen layer is green in colour In the

Lichens growing in rocks! • A Lichen layer is green in colour In the winter strong winds blast sand at the rocks. This means that in some places lichens and mosses rarely grow rocks. Here we can see that Some lichens are actually found living inside rocks! A lichen is two organisms living together, in a symbiotic relationship - each being dependent on the other. Lichen is mainly a fungus species along with cyanobacteria. The transparent crystals let sunlight through and the rocks warm up during the daytime. At night they may occasionally get a little water in the form of dew.

Scientists from the Universities of Waikato and Canterbury and from around the world bring

Scientists from the Universities of Waikato and Canterbury and from around the world bring together experience in all areas of terrestrial Antarctic biology. The aim of the research is to record the diversity of life living in the Dry Valleys. But most importantly it is exploring how the biological (organisms), physical (climate) and chemical (soil chemistry) environments interact with each other to control species diversity. Basically put, why do species live where they do, when they do? The research is used to creating a scientific model which will help us to predict the effects of climate change and other global, regional and local impacts. GO TO nz. TABS to find out more: http: //nztabs. ictar. aq/index. php