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ANNOTATION FOR HARKNESS Tips on how to annotate a reading in preparation for discussion
Class Objectives • To understand what the Harkness method of discussion is and why it is used • To understand what is expected of students participating in a Harkness discussion • To understand the importance of text at the Harkness table, and the expectations for discussion preparation using text • To understand what assessment methods will be used during the Harkness process
What is a Harkness? • A discussion method developed by Edward L. Harkness at Phillips Exeter school. • A student-led form of discussion • Teacher acts as little as possible; students are responsible for the team’s success • Everyone is expected to participate: the goal is to keep the discussion moving forward and working as a team to come to a conclusion and/or solve a problem.
What is the difference between note taking and annotation? • Difference depends on the quality of the notes being taken. General comparisons are: Note taking Annotation Notes taken on a separate page Notes added directly to reading Notes formed in order of when text is read Note taking is more flexible and may require returning to points Recording information with possible questioning Deeper engagement with the text
Annotating articles • Lopez article – note taking or annotation? • Blog reading http: //slowreads. com/2008/04/18/how-to-mark-a-book/ • Discussion • To what extent does advanced preparation for discussion, such as annotation, enhance the overall experience for the students?
Why Annotate? • To gain a deeper understanding of the content of the reading • Allows you to categorize your note taking to find information easily • Encourages you to focus more on the text and its significance as a stand alone piece, but also in a broader context • Allows you to prepare for discussion more thoroughly • Allows you to interact with the reading, rather than taking the information like a passive observer • Develops your writing skills • What you see in the text will become the foundation for the discussions
Annotation Tools & Techniques Pencils • Use pencil instead of pen • Use Marginalia to make comments in the margins • Interlineations are notes between the text • Create your own marking system The Text • Use inside cover to make a list of key information with pages noted. • Key information can be categorized e. g. themes, character’s, scenes, definitions etc.
Annotation Tools & Techniques Using marks • Develop your own system of marks using symbols e. g. question marks for an unclear phrase; smiley faces for things you like etc. Summarize • Summarize passages with marginal comments • Helps you return to sections and find information • Use tables, diagrams etc. to summarize key ideas Other Marginal Comments • Note your agreements and disagreements with the text • Make connections to other texts, issues, memories etc. • Circle words you are unfamiliar with and create a glossary • Mark literary devices to appreciate writer’ style • Cross reference other texts with page numbers
Annotating Examples Annotating the Lopez piece • Read again • Annotate re-annotate • Identify: • the major themes of the article • questions you think are worthy of discussion • ideas or observations you have • connections to other experiences or texts • connections to sense of place, landscape, The Golden Spruce, Canada etc