- Slides: 29
Geography • The geography of India includes high mountains, great rivers, and heavy seasonal rain.
Geography • India is a subcontinent. Which is a large landmass that is smaller than a continent • The mountains of northern India are called the Himalayas • Over time, the Indus River Valley became ideal for farming. Which of the following events took place first? Heavy snows fell in the Himalayas.
Geography • India’s monsoons are seasonal. Which means The monsoons occur in a regular pattern • Civilizations arose around the seasonal rainfall.
Geography • Civilization in India began the Northern Region with the great rivers and fertile land.
Geography • The highest mountains in the world separate India from the rest of Asia. They are known as the Himalayas. • The Himalayas are the northern part of India. • In the West are the Hindu Kush which provides protection from enemies.
Indus River Valley. • Population grew in the Indus River Valley. • Growth came as irrigation and farming techniques improved. • Cities were built as surplus food was produced.
Indus River Valley. • Two cities that developed were Harrapa & Mohenjo Daro
Indus River Valley. • Both Harappa and Mohenjo Daro were wellplanned cities that grew in the Indus River Valley. They were intelligent and talented. • Because Indian farmers learned how to irrigate crops , villages grew along the rivers.
Indus River Valley. • Indus Valley people were able to build their cities because they paved roads and built mud brick houses • Scholars do not know why Harappan civilization ended.
Invaders from the West • When the Harappan civilization dissipated in 1700 BC, Central Asians called Aryans began taking over territory.
Indian Society • Unlike tha Harappan system of government, The Aryan system was based mostly on family connections • Oral tradition in religion and mythology resulted in the most important language of ancient India: Sanskrit. • Aryans wrote their poems and hymns in a language called Sanskrit
Indian Society • Aryans believed that the most important thing in life was warfare Aryans fought each other nearly as often as they fought outsiders.
Indian Society • The Aryans began to farm, so they stayed in one place and abandoned their nomadic lifestyle.
Indian Society • Indian society divided into distinct groups under the Aryans. • The Aryans practiced a religion known as Brahmanism. • Hinduism developed out of Brahmanism and influences from other cultures. • The highest class in Aryan society was Brahmins • Hindus believe that all of their gods are part of a universal spirit called Brahman.
Indian Society • The Aryans developed a system of social class known as the caste system which divided people into castes or groups according to their occupation.
Indian Society • Hindus believe that each person has a soul. The soul did not die with the body but instead was reborn again in another body that was called reincarnation.
Hinduism • The followers of Hinduism are called Hindus. • Hindus worship many gods. But they believe those gods are part of a supreme of highest spirit called Brahman. • Hindus believe people become joined forever with Brahman through a process called Reincarnation
India and Buddhism • Siddhartha Gautama was born in India around 563 B. C. and he began his search for the truth about human suffering. • Much of what we know about Siddhartha comes from Buddhist writings. • The Buddha’s teachings were influenced by other religions because He searched for truth by studying with teachers of Hinduism but never found his answers.
India and Buddhism • Siddhartha Gautama most concerned with helping people worship God on a daily basis • The guiding principles at the heart of Buddhism are called the Four Noble Truths. • many people from lower social classes to supported the Buddha’s teachings because the Buddha opposed the caste system.
Indian Empires • Candragupta Maurya was a military leader who founded the Maurya Empire. He was able to set up a strong central government for the empire.
Indian Empires • Chandragupta’s grandson, Asoka, one of the most powerful kings in India, became a Buddhist and spread Buddhism in India and foreign lands. • one effect of Asoka Maurya becoming a Buddhist was that he swore to not fight any more wars. • He called for religious toleration
Indian Empires • Asoka built monasteries all over India and sent missionaries across Asia to spread Buddhism. • People who work to spread religious beliefs are called missionaries •
Gupta Empire • After the decline of the Mauryan Empire, India remained primarily Buddhist for 500 years. • Under the rule of Candra Gupta I, India became unified and prosperous again.
Gupta Empire • The first Gupta emperor was Candra Gupta I • The Gupta Empire was a time of peace and prosperity. And a time of many achievements in art and mathematics. • For example: The Indians created a new number system that was a base 10 number system.
Indian Achievements • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Fz. OKUTJ K 8 Wc&feature=youtu. be
Fall of Gupta Empire • What happened to the Gupta Empire? 1. Invaders from central Asia called the Huns attacked India 2. The central government of the empire had broken down 3. India eventually divided into many separate kingdoms.