Balkan Peninsula Ancient Greece
Sparta and Athens
Tyranny in the City-States • Nobles seized power from kings • Tyrants – take power by force and rules with total authority – Building new marketplaces, temples, and walls • Oligarchy – a few people hold power - Sparta • Democracy - all citizens share in running the gov't - Athens
Sparta • Founded by Dorians • Instead of setting colonies, they conquered and enslaved their neighbors. • Helots were Sparta's captive workers. The name comes from the Greek word for capture.
Why was the Military So Important? • Fear of being taken over led to firm control and training for war • 7 years old live in barracks • 20 years – enter regular army • 30 years – returned home • Girls were trained in sports. • Women were freer
Sparta’s Government • • Oligarchy 2 kings headed a council of elders All men over 30 Ephors enforced the laws and managed tax collection. • Discouraged foreign visitors
Life in Athens • School • Citizen at 18 • Girls
Building Democracy • Early Athens – landowning nobles – oligarchy • Solon was a noble that both sides trusted. • Peisistratus • Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes • All male citizens • New powers • Council of 500 – – Proposed laws Dealt with foreign countries Oversaw treasury Members were chosen by lottery every year. • Non-citizens were excluded. • Credited with making Athens a democracy
Riddle • Men in Athens liked to go to fancy dinner parties where they told riddles. • “When you look at me, I look at you. When you speak, I open my mouth and move my lips, but you cannot hear me and I cannot see you. What am I? ” • A Mirror
Review 1. Who were the helots? Captive workers in Sparta.
Review 2. Why did tyrants fall out favor with the Greeks? Because most Greeks longed for rule by law with all citizens participating in government.
Review 3. Why did Athenians choose officials by lottery? They thought elections might favor the rich. Would there be drawbacks to this method? The most qualified people might not be picked.
Review 4. How did the Greek nobles gain power? They seized power from kings during the Dark Age.
Review 5. Why was Solon popular among farmers and unpopular among others? He canceled farmers’ debts and freed those who had become enslaved, but he refused to give away wealthy nobles’ land.
Review 6. How did Athenian democracy keep one person from gaining too much power? A large council chosen by lottery kept power distributed among the people.