- Slides: 21
Ancient Egypt --ANCIENT RIVER CIVILIZATIONS--
WHERE IS EGYPT?
“The gift of the Nile” �Without the Nile River, there would not have been a great civilization �“Black Land” = black silt would spread after flooding, which made land fertile for farming �Silt was one of the most important materials Egyptians got from the Nile �“Red Land” = desert areas east and west of Ancient Egypt, provided resources for precious metals and stones
Natural Barriers �Boundaries & Barriers �Deserts (red land) �Mountains �Seas & rivers These geographic features gave Egypt protection from invaders!
Kingdoms of Lower & Upper Egypt � Around 5000 BCE, people began to settle along the Nile River � Over time, the people banded into 2 groups: Egypt (northern) – near the end of the Nile �Upper Egypt (southern) – closer to the start of Nile �Lower
Kingdoms of Lower & Upper Egypt � King Menes united the two kingdoms around 3200 BCE � Menes became the 1 st pharaoh (king) and started the 1 st dynasty (ruling family) � Capital city at Memphis – dividing line between Lower and Upper Egypt
Ancient Egyptian History… Old Kingdom 2700 -2200 BCE “Pyramid Age” Middle Kingdom 2000 -1650 BCE New Kingdom 1550 – 1100 BCE Known as “Golden Age” of Egypt
Old Kingdom 2700 -2200 BCE Great Pyramid at Giza “Pyramid Age” � Pharaohs � Upper � First had absolute power and Lower Egypt united stone pyramid built � Pyramids at Giza built Great Sphinx
Middle Kingdom 2000 -1650 BCE � Pharaohs were buried in hidden tombs � Built strong armies and fortresses to defend Egypt � Achievements in literature, art, and engineering Diagram of underground hidden tomb Canal boat: transport, fishing, recreation
New Kingdom 1550 – 1100 BCE Known as “Golden Age” of Egypt � Pharaohs ruled as all powerful � Egypt expanded its territory into the Middle East � Time of King Tut and Queen Hatshepsut, the first female pharaoh � Egypt grew into a huge empire during this time
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Egyptian Social Structure �* Egypt’s social class can be organized into a pyramid: classes near the top had fewer people in them with higher status while classes near the bottom had a greater number of people with lower status. �* Social class in Egypt was rigid, meaning you were born into the same class as your parents, usually married within your same social group and had little chance of moving classes.
Word Bank Pharaohs Law Pyramids Generals Peaceful Honoring Power Artisans, Merchants & Scribes Traveled Record Skilled Workshops Civilizations School Nobles & Priests Inherited Temples Quality Pharaoh Burial Social Farmers Animals Shelter Flooding Wool Harvesting Food Soldiers Linen Riches Farmed Barracks Peace Border Unskilled Workers / Slaves Monuments Farming Captured Households Peak Foreigners
Pharaohs � *Kings, generals and religious leaders. Believed to be gods and their word was law. � *Role was to keep Egypt peaceful and prosperous while honoring the gods � *Built pyramids and monuments to show power and success
Nobles and Priests � Wealthy, enjoyed a high quality of life with lots of social time � In charge of temples, rituals, mummification and burial practices � Nobles were usually related to the pharaoh and inherited the position of assisting the pharaoh in the government
Soldiers � Lived in barracks at camps and forts throughout Egypt, some stations along border could be boring and not see action for years � Farmed and helped with pharaoh’s projects during peace time. � Wore sandals and short linen skirts to keep cool, usually paid in bread and beer but could keep riches seized from foreign lands
Artisans/Merchants/Scribes � Artisans were highly skilled but not very respected, usually worked in shared workshops � Scribes held a respected position, went to school for many years and worked to record info for government and religious leaders � Merchants traveled to trade products and bring back goods made in other civilizations
Farmers � Worked during planting and harvesting season, worked on other government projects during flooding season � Also raised animals like cattle, sheep and goats for meat, milk, wool and skins � Farmers were paid in food, clothes and shelter
Unskilled Workers/Slaves � Often would work on farming projects during peak planting and harvesting season � During all other times they built pyramids and monuments for the pharaohs or worked in households or mines � This was the largest class, and was mostly made up of foreigners and prisoners of war captured from other lands
Decline of Egypt’s Power � Egypt started to lose power when Upper and Lower Egypt split � Egypt grew weak and was invaded by many civilizations (Persians, Greeks, Romans) � Cleopatra was the last pharaoh in 27 BCE � Ancient Egypt became part of the Roman Empire – doesn’t gain national independence until 1922
Some Egyptian Contributions � Architecture �Pyramids, and Engineering temples, dams, canals � Art �Statues, stone carvings, paintings, jewelry, pottery � Math �Number system based on 10, fractions, geometry, first calendar of 365 days � Medicine �Set broken bones, recognized diseases, prescribed drugs