- Slides: 87
Ancient China Geography • Neolithic Age civilization was established along a river – the HUANG HE or Yellow River in northern China. • The river and the land (called LOESS) around it has a yellow color to it – from the dust blown there from the west. • The Huang He floods – often very destructively – causing the river to be called “China’s Sorrow. ” • Built dikes to control flooding • Floods left fertile soil • only 12% of China can be used for agriculture, mountains and deserts cover most land surface • Physical features isolated China from the rest of the world= mountains and deserts
China Geography • Chang Jiang or Yangtze longer than Huang He • Empties in Yellow Sea • Both rivers provide rich soil
Isolation of China • Himalaya closes China SW • Kunlun Shan and Tian Shan mountains Western border • Gobi desert east of mountains
• In the beginning there was nothing in the universe except a formless chaos. However this chaos coalesced into a cosmic egg for about 18, 000 years. Within it, the perfectly opposed principles of Yin and Yang became balanced and Pangu emerged (or woke up) from the egg. Pangu is usually depicted as a primitive, hairy giant with horns on his head and clad in furs. Pangu set about the task of creating the world: he separated Yin from Yang with a swing of his giant axe, creating the Earth (murky Yin) and the Sky (clear Yang). To keep them separated, Pangu stood between them and pushed up the Sky. This task took 18, 000 years; with each day the sky grew ten feet (3 meters) higher, the Earth ten feet wider, and Pangu ten feet taller. In some versions of the story, Pangu is aided in this task by the four most prominent beasts, namely the Turtle, the Qilin, the Phoenix, and the Dragon. • After the 18, 000 years had elapsed, Pangu was laid to rest. His breath became the wind; his voice thunder; left eye the sun and right eye the moon; his body became the mountains and extremes of the world; his blood formed rivers; his muscles the fertile lands; his facial hair the stars and milky way; his fur the bushes and forests; his bones the valuable minerals; his bone marrows sacred diamonds; his sweat fell as rain; and the fleas on his fur carried by the wind became the fish and animals throughout the land. Nüwa the Goddess then used the mud of the water bed to form the shape of humans. These humans were very smart since they were individually crafted. Nüwa then became bored of individually making every human so she started putting a rope in the water bed and letting the drops of mud that fell from it become new humans. These small drops became new humans, not as smart as the first. The first writer to record the myth of Pangu was Xu Zheng (徐整) during the Three Kingdoms (三國) period.
Pan Gu the Creator: Born From The Egg of Chaos
Shang Dynasty • Pan Gu founded China, giant hatched from egg of chaos • First bronze age dynasty = Xia • No records of Xia • Legend states Yu, man-god, drove out serpents and dragons out and founded Xia along Huang He • Shang replaced Xia(1750 -1122 bc) credited as 1 st dynasty (had writing system and first civilization) • Shang = farming society who was ruled by aristocracy= wealthy landowners • King ruled over a system of territories, strong central government • Ancestor worship through oracle bones
• Later Warlords chosen by kings to govern territories with his own army
Shang Dynasty • Priest heated bones until they cracked and then interpreted their meanings • Chinese believed strongly in life after death • Ancestor worship = belief that spirits of ancestors could bring good or bad fortune by communicating with nature gods • Most of Shang = peasants/ there small groups of artisans and merchants
Shang Writing • First Chinese Dynasty to create writing system • Pictographs = characters stand for objects • Ideographs= join 2 or more pictographs to form an idea
Chinese Writing=Characters • No alphabet in China • It is a system where symbols represent concepts • Should know at least 3, 000 character to be able to understand newspapers • 6, 000 characters are essential in every day use • Dictionary could have 40, 000 -50, 000 characters
• • • Zhou Dynasty Lasted 800 years 1045 bc to 256 bc Longest lasting Chinese dynasty Over threw Shang Founder of Zhou Dynasty= Wu Wang King claimed to have the Mandate of Heaven where the king was the link between heaven and earth( King right to rule comes from the gods) • King was expected to rule wisely in order to keep the gods pleased in order to prevent disasters = dao • Kings set up government in bureaucracy style • Bureaucracy= appointed officials responsible for different
Zhou Dynasty • King could do what he needed to keep order in the universe • Peasants worked on lands owned by their lords • Zhou trade silk, salt, iron, cloth, and luxury items
Zhou Dynasty • For centuries Zhou was ruled by wise rulers • Kingdom was divided into several small territories • Civil war between territories broke out became known as “Period of the Warring States • Chinese developed new war methods = cavalry, chariots, and crossbow • Filial Piety = refers to the duty of family members to subordinate to the male head of the family & older generations = important confucian concept • The family not the individuals was the most important unit in Chinese society. Family was ruled by the father. Father arranged marriages and decided on the amount of education his sons would get • Women were subordinate to men
Zhou Tools and Trade • • • Developed: Irrigation and flood control systems Use iron plows instead of wooden Population expanded to 50 million people Important trade item= silk Silk product found in Greece
Fall of Zhou Dynasty • • Local rulers stop obeying Zhou kings Set up on states 403 B. C. war broke out Next 200 yrs. Known as Period of Warring states • 221 B. C. Ruler of Qin wins and unites China
“Period of the Warring States” • During fighting for control of China foot soldiers( peasants) were used Advancement in Military: • Crossbow • Horse harness • Qin won control of China
Life in China • Three main classes: • Landowning aristocrats • Peasant farmers and Artisans= pay taxes, 1 month a year public service, soldiers during war time • Merchants= lower than farmer (shop keepers, bankers, & traders) but could become nobles • Grew millet, wheat= north • Rice in south • Terraces farming= farming on mounting slopes= level off mountain slopes= stop erosion and let water drip on lower terrace = irrigation
Life in China • Men consider more important than women because of jobs they held • Most women managed household=raised children • Women in royal court had influence in government
Patterns of Chinese History • Dynastic cycle: First stage- founding of dynasty. Next was the period of peace, expansion and great power. Then a period of regression marked the beginning of the decline. Then when decline reached a low point chaos and rebellion broke out and the dynasty collapsed • Cultural Evolution: development of culture over the centuries. During some stages of the dynastic cycle, the pace of cultural evolution quickened, in other stages it slowed.
Zhou Military Advances
Confucius/Confucianism • Confucius=Great Chinese philosopher, born in the state of Lu/ 500’s b. c. • Father was district commander of Lu/died three years after Confucius birth • Family was left in poverty • Confucius still received fine education due to friends of his father • Married at the age of 19, one son, 2 daughters
Confucius • Immediately after marriage he was forced to do small jobs for money due to poverty • Mother died in 527 b. c. /went through a period of mourning and decided to become a teacher • traveled about instructing small amounts of his disciples • came up with many theories and taught people the power of example
Teachings of Confucianism • Respect everybody • Do not do to others what you would not want done to yourself • People have roles in relationships=respect elders=Filial Piety • Be a good example • Rulers treat people fairly; people will treat other people fairly • Know your place in society and family • Confucius ideas led to people taking civil service tests to serve in government • Ended gov. jobs passed from father to son
Confucianism • • • Not popular with aristocrats Few leaders listened Over time many followed his teachings Considered great teacher Died in 479 B. C. Teaching spread throughout China
1] The Master said: "Love makes a spot beautiful: who chooses not to dwell in love, has he got wisdom? "  The Master said: "Loveless men cannot bear need long, they cannot bear fortune long. Loving hearts find peace in love; clever heads find profit in it. "  The Master said: "Love can alone love others, or hate others. "  The Master said: "A heart set on love will do no wrong. "  The Master said: "Wealth and honors are what men desire; but abide not in them by help of wrong. Lowliness and want are hated of men; but forsake them not by help of wrong.
Daoism • System of ideas based on the teachings of Laozi= old master • Laozi was understudy of Confucius • Ideas were popular in the 4 th & 5 th century • Teachings are not concerned with the universe but instead of the action of people • Way to follow the Dao is by inaction and not action=Just live and let things happen to you • People should act spontaneously and let nature take its course • Give up worldly desires and turn to nature • Do not need many possessions enough to get by
Legalism • Proposed the idea that human beings were evil by nature • Only way to get humans on the right path was with stiff penalties and tough laws • Believed it was important to have a strong ruler who imposed harsh rules • A ruler was not to be compassionate towards his subjects • Goal was to force people to be obedient through fear • Aristocrats liked it
Naturalism • Dualism of nature -yin/yang - balance is inevitable • Combined Dao simplicity and Confucian formalism
Qin Dynasty • • Established by Qin Shihuangdi in 221 bc Shihuangdi means first emperor Adopted Legalism Opponents of regime were imprisoned or executed, burned books, executed scholars • Built Great Wall for protection - keep out Xiongnu cavalry • Qin unified Chinese world by creating monetary/ weight systems and a road system • Extended empire into modern day Vietnam
• The word China originates from the word Qin
Qin Dynasty • Shihuandi appointed gov. officials: censors= watched over gov. officals • Gov. officials over provinces & counties • Ended gov. officials being passed from father to son. • An early form of the compass was invented using lodestones (iron and oxide mineral)
End of Qin Dynasty • • Shihuangdi= cruel leader Scholars hated b/c he burnt writings Aristocrats hated him b/c reduced their power Peasants hated him b/c he forced them build rds. And Great Wall • Terra Cotta warriors = most significant artistic discovery, replicas of Qin Shi huangdi’s imperial guard to accompany him to the next world
Qin Shi Huangdi
The Great Wall of China
CHINA/great wall • Through its entire history, China has tried to keep out foreign invaders • In many directions, enemies were held out by natural barriers=Seas, mountains, deserts • Great Wall of China was built to keep out invaders from the north • Built 2, 200 years ago/4, 000 miles long/runs from the yellow sea to the deserts of the west
Han Dynasty • One of China’s greatest dynasties 202 B. C. -220 A. D. • Founded by Liu Bang=from peasant origin • Called himself Han Gaozu= Exalted Emperor of Han • Adopted Confucianism • Kept Qin political divisions and merit system, leaders chosen by merit and not birth
Han Dynasty • Han Wudi(peak of Han 141 B. C. – 87 B. C. ) added land to China in the south as far as South China Sea • He started civil service test • This ensured talented people got gov. jobs • Excluded poor; must have education=rich • Over time, Han rulers too concerned with pleasure and corruption led to downfall in ad 220 • Next dynasty was not established for over 400 years
Han Growth • • Population from 20 to 60 million Land increased to west Literature achievement grew Books of history
Liu Bang: Han Gaozu Founder of The Han
Mandarins Were Exempt From the Law, Labor and Taxes
Han Achievements • Paper, silk, waterwheels, and medicine • Herbs cure illness and eased pain • Also used acupuncture= needles in certain nerves • Building of Silk Road= 4, 000 miles • Invention of rudder and fore and aft rigging made sailing into wind possible for the first time = increasing trade
Silk Road • • Han Wudi started the building of Silk Road Sent General West =13 yrs. Interacted with Roman Republic Very dangerous rd. through mountains and deserts • Silk Road passes through Persia, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor • Used camels to carry silk, spices, tea, and porcelain • Paid high taxes to use silk Rd. • Connected the east with the west
Major changes in China • Buddhism starts toward the end of Han dynasty • After Wudi emperors weak and foolish • Dishonest gov. officials • Civil war in 220 A. D. • Taken over by northern nomads • Buddhists ideas help cope with chaos of war • Horse stirrup invented in 322 A. D.
Sui Dynasty “sway ” • Reunification of China • Undertook extensive public works projects • Extended military control over large stretches of China • Founded by Wendi • 581 A. D. • Rebuilt Great Wall • Built Grand Canal connect Huang He to Chang Jiang • Printing blocks were invented
The Great Wall of China • Rebuilding of Great Wall provided security from northern raiders.
The Grand Canal • Grand Canal promoted domestic trade by connecting Yellow and Yangzi rivers.
Tang Dynasty “tahng ” 618 - 906 • 618 A. D. Wu Zhao, China’s only empress, ruled the most geographically extensive Chinese empire • Government composed of departments • Bureaucrats upheld Confucian ideals by acting as artists and politicians • Turks and farmer revolt end the Tang Dynasty 907 A. D.
• During the Tang Dynasty the invention of printing blocks was spreaded • Printing blocks increased production of Buddhists literature • Porcelain • Discovered gunpowder=sulphur and saltpeter when combined with charcoal • Invention of fireworks • Discovery steel and coal in Tang Dynasty
Song Dynasty 960 - 1279 • China ruled by military for 50 yrs. • 960 A. D. Military general established Song Dynasty • 960 -1279 Known for prosperity and cultural achievement • Weak military • Printed first paper money • Gun powder as weapons • landscape painting • Bi, Sheng invented movable type • About 1150 magnetic needle compasses were being used on ships
Buddhism in China • Started after fall of Han= gave hope • Became popular in Tang Dynasty • Built monasteries= place of worship and meditation • Later feared by Tang officials • B/C afraid reverence for nuns and priest would weaken family ties=filial piety • Tang later destroyed monasteries
Neo -Confucianism • Neo-Confucianism introduced in Tang • Used to decrease Buddhism popularity • Neo-Confucianism = life in this world just as important as the afterlife • Neo-Confucianism mixture of Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism
Mongols • Mongols lived north of China • Mongols were nomadic herders unified by Genghis Khan with army over 100, 000 • Mongols good with horses and bow and arrow • Officers chosen by skill • Mongols known for cruelty= burned cities • Conquered Northern China and cities along Silk Road to Indus
Mongols • 1227 Genghis dies • 4 sons divide empire • Conquered Central Europe (Russia) SW Asia (Middle East) • Stopped at Egypt
Kublai Khan • Kublai Khan= Mongol Empire flourished and started Yuan Dynasty 1280 - 1365 • Ended Song Dynasty, took over Southern China • Opened empire to Western Europe • Reopened the Silk Road • Allowed other religions to come in • Allowed Venice merchant Marco Polo to tour Empire(1275 -1292) • Marco Polo wrote a book about the wonders of China • From the book people’s interest in the west grew about China • Traded silver, spices, carpets , cotton from Europe and Asia • China ship out tea, silk, and porcelain
Chinese Visitors Ibn Battuta Arab Traveler Marco Polo Italian Traveler
• Chinese discovers such as gun powder, steel, and compass made it back to European and Muslim homelands.
Ming Dynasty • Ming Dynasty ended Mongol rule 1368 A. D. - 1644 • 1421 capital city moved to Northern Beijing = center of Beijing was the Forbidden City= home of emperors • Only top government officials could enter • Big ship fleets built traded with Arabia, India, and Africa • Around 1443 stop sea voyages dismantled ship fleet • 1514 European ship fleets begin trade with China • Chinese did not like Europeans trying to convert them to Christianity. • Portugal main European country to come Chinese ports