Anatomy Physiology Urinary Reproductive System Unit X Urinary

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Anatomy & Physiology Urinary & Reproductive System Unit X

Anatomy & Physiology Urinary & Reproductive System Unit X

Urinary Terms • Renal – kidney • Nephrology – study of kidney function •

Urinary Terms • Renal – kidney • Nephrology – study of kidney function • Urology – study of urinary system

Kidneys (located on posterior wall) Structures: -Renal cortex – outer region • Projects to

Kidneys (located on posterior wall) Structures: -Renal cortex – outer region • Projects to inner region as renal columns that separate the renal pyramids - Renal medulla – inner region • Forms renal pyramids Calyces – cuplike units -Renal pelvis • Collects urine made • Upper end of the ureters

Kidney Functions • Excrete waste • Regulate blood volume • Regulate electrolytes • Regulate

Kidney Functions • Excrete waste • Regulate blood volume • Regulate electrolytes • Regulate acid- base balance • Regulate BP • Regulate RBC production

Nephron Unit - Tubule Structures • Bowman’s capsule • C-shaped structure partially surrounding glomeruli

Nephron Unit - Tubule Structures • Bowman’s capsule • C-shaped structure partially surrounding glomeruli • Proximal convoluted tubule • Coiled tubule; extension of Bowman’s capsule • Loop of Henle • Descending & ascending branch • Distal convoluted tubule • Collecting ducts • Several merging distal convoluted tubules

Nephron Unit – Vascular Structures • Arterioles • Afferent → to the glomerulus •

Nephron Unit – Vascular Structures • Arterioles • Afferent → to the glomerulus • Efferent → away from the glomerulus • Glomerulus(i) – cluster(s) of capillaries • Peritubular capillaries – surrounds the renal tubules; returns back to venules, vein, renal vein

Kidney Blood Pathway Renal artery Afferent arteriole Glomerulus Efferent Arteriole Capillaries contacting nephron units

Kidney Blood Pathway Renal artery Afferent arteriole Glomerulus Efferent Arteriole Capillaries contacting nephron units Venules Renal Vein Inferior Vena Cava

Urine Formation Processes • Glomeruli filtrate • H₂O & dissolved substances of Na⁺, K⁺,

Urine Formation Processes • Glomeruli filtrate • H₂O & dissolved substances of Na⁺, K⁺, Cl⁻, glucose, uric acid, creatine; NO protein • Filtration occurs because of ↑ pressure in glomeruli driving substances to low pressure in Bowman’s

Urine Formation Processes • Tubular reabsorption • From tubules back into peritubular capillaries; mostly

Urine Formation Processes • Tubular reabsorption • From tubules back into peritubular capillaries; mostly @ proximal convoluted tubules • Kidneys decide type & amt. • Achieved through active transport (pumping Na⁺ from the tubules) OR passive transport (where Na⁺ goes, H₂O follows); also hormones • Tubular secretions • Small amt. of substances move from capillaries into the tubules

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) • Released from posterior pituitary gland • Stimulates collecting ducts to

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) • Released from posterior pituitary gland • Stimulates collecting ducts to allow H₂O reabsorption to peritubular capillaries • Stimulus comes from low blood volume

Aldosterone • Mineralcorticoid • Secreted by the adrenal cortex after stimulation by ACTH •

Aldosterone • Mineralcorticoid • Secreted by the adrenal cortex after stimulation by ACTH • Stimulates distal tubule to reabsorb Na⁺ & H₂O = expanding blood volume & eliminates K⁺ in the urine • Released in response to the enzyme renin

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System • Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA): arterioles specialized cells in the afferent • Renin:

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System • Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA): arterioles specialized cells in the afferent • Renin: enzyme released from the JGA when blood volume or BP ↓ • Angiotensinogen • Inactive form located in liver • Is activated by renin to convert to angiotensin I • Converting enzyme • In blood • Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone • Angiotensin II • Stimulates release of aldosterone • Also is a vasopressor

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone • Angiotensin II • Stimulates release of aldosterone • Also is a vasopressor

Urine Composition • Mostly H₂O, waste, electrolytes • 1500 m. L/day • p. H:

Urine Composition • Mostly H₂O, waste, electrolytes • 1500 m. L/day • p. H: 5. 0 – 8. 0 (usually acidic) • Characteristic odor • Specific gravity: 1. 001 – 1. 030

Urinary Structures – Ureters • Carries urine from renal pelvis to bladder

Urinary Structures – Ureters • Carries urine from renal pelvis to bladder

Urinary Structures – Bladder • Temporary urine storage (rugae) • Mucosa, submucosa, muscle, serosa

Urinary Structures – Bladder • Temporary urine storage (rugae) • Mucosa, submucosa, muscle, serosa • Internal sphincter - at exit of bladder • Smooth muscle; involuntary • External sphincter – below internal • Skeletal muscle; voluntary • Urination, micturition, void • Micturition reflex: full bladder; sensory nerves to spinal cord; motor response back to bladder; bladder wall contracts & internal sphincter relaxes

Urethra • Carries urine from bladder to outside (meatus) • Lined with mucous membrane

Urethra • Carries urine from bladder to outside (meatus) • Lined with mucous membrane • Length varies

Male Reproductive System Functions • Produces, nourishes, transports sperm • Deposits sperm within female

Male Reproductive System Functions • Produces, nourishes, transports sperm • Deposits sperm within female reproductive tract • Secretes hormones that determine secondary sex characteristics

Internal Male Structures & Functions - Testes • Male gonad • Produce sperm &

Internal Male Structures & Functions - Testes • Male gonad • Produce sperm & secrete testosterone • Begins developing within abdominopelvic cavity & descends into scrotum to live at lower than body temperature environment • Made of lobules • Seminiferous tubules • Sperm production • Interstitial cells • Secrete the androgens • Spermatogenesis • Sperm formation • Primary spermatocyte undergoes meiosis

Sperm Head: primarily a nucleus; helps to penetrate egg Body: mid piece; contains mitochondria

Sperm Head: primarily a nucleus; helps to penetrate egg Body: mid piece; contains mitochondria Tail: flagellum; mobility

Genital Ducts • Epididymis • Tightly coiled structure sitting on top of testes; •

Genital Ducts • Epididymis • Tightly coiled structure sitting on top of testes; • Sperm matures here • Vas deferens • Ascend with spermatic cord into pelvic cavity, curves over bladder

Genital Ducts • Ejaculatory ducts • The joining of the vas deferens with the

Genital Ducts • Ejaculatory ducts • The joining of the vas deferens with the seminal vesicles • R. & L. duct merge to join urethra • Urethra • Extends from bladder to tip of penis • Surrounded by prostate gland • Transports urine & semen

Accessory Glands • Seminal vesicles • Base of bladder • Adds a nutritious secretion

Accessory Glands • Seminal vesicles • Base of bladder • Adds a nutritious secretion to semen • Prostate gland • Encircles urethra just below the bladder • Produces alkaline secretion to neutralize vaginal acid & ↑ sperm mobility • Contracts during ejaculation to move semen • Bulbourethral glands • Cowper’s glands • Secrete lubricating mucus into distal urethra

Semen Functions • Nourishes • Transports • Lubricates sperm lower structures of reproductive tract

Semen Functions • Nourishes • Transports • Lubricates sperm lower structures of reproductive tract

Male External Genitals Penis • Shaft • 3 columns of erectile tissue • Accumulation

Male External Genitals Penis • Shaft • 3 columns of erectile tissue • Accumulation of blood causes erection • Glans penis: distal end • Urinary meatus: penetrates the glans • Prepuce • Foreskin; covers the glans • Function • Expels urine & is intercourse organ

Male External Genitals Scrotum • Sac that holds the testes

Male External Genitals Scrotum • Sac that holds the testes

Testosterone • Primary sex characteristics • Testes & penis size • Secondary sex characteristics

Testosterone • Primary sex characteristics • Testes & penis size • Secondary sex characteristics • Hair growth & distribution • ↓ voice • Musculoskeletal growth • ↑ activity of skin glands

Male Hormone System • Hypothalamus – releasing hormones → anterior pituitary gland = gonadotropins

Male Hormone System • Hypothalamus – releasing hormones → anterior pituitary gland = gonadotropins • FSH • Stimulates spermatogenic cells = sensitivity ↑ to testosterone • LH • Stimulates interstitial cells to secrete testosterone • Negative feedback effect • As plasma levels of testosterone ↑, ant. pituitary ↓ LH output

Female Reproductive Functions • Produces ova • Secretes hormones • Nurtures & protects a

Female Reproductive Functions • Produces ova • Secretes hormones • Nurtures & protects a developing fetus during 9 months of pregnancy

Internal Structures & Functions Ovaries – female gonad • Egg development – the ovarian

Internal Structures & Functions Ovaries – female gonad • Egg development – the ovarian follicle (a tiny saclike structure; MANY) • Each follicle contains an immature oocyte (egg) & surrounding follicular cells • Oocyte → meiosis • Follicular cells → estrogen • Mature ovarian follicle = graafian follicle

OVULATION eject 1 egg/month from surface • Egg swept up by the fimbriae of

OVULATION eject 1 egg/month from surface • Egg swept up by the fimbriae of the fallopian tubes • Follicular cells remain in the ovary; become corpus luteum (gland structure) → progesterone • Corpus luteum = YELLOW BODY • Corpus albicans = WHITE BODY

Internal Structures Fallopian Tubes • Oviduct, uterine tubes • Site of fertilization • Transports

Internal Structures Fallopian Tubes • Oviduct, uterine tubes • Site of fertilization • Transports egg to uterus • Infundibulum – distal tube

Internal Structures Uterus • Fundus • Upper dome shape part • Body • Center

Internal Structures Uterus • Fundus • Upper dome shape part • Body • Center • Cervix • Long narrow region • Layers • Epimetrium (outer) • Myometrium (muscle) • Endometrium (inner)

Internal Structure Vagina • Part of birth canal • Receives penis during intercourse

Internal Structure Vagina • Part of birth canal • Receives penis during intercourse

External Female Genitalia Vulva • Labia majora & minora • Prevents drying of the

External Female Genitalia Vulva • Labia majora & minora • Prevents drying of the mucous membrane • Clitoris • Erectile tissue • Vestibule • Between labia minora • Contains urethral & vaginal openings • Bartholin’s glands • Vestibular glands near the vaginal opening; secrete mucus • Perineum • Between vaginal & anus

Female Hormones • Estrogen – secreted by • Progesterone – secreted by • Promotes

Female Hormones • Estrogen – secreted by • Progesterone – secreted by • Promotes egg maturation • Menstrual cycle participation • Secondary sex characteristics • reproductive organs develop • Assist to maintain pregnancy follicular cells breast development • fat distribution • pelvis widens • menstrual cycle participation • closes epiphyseal disc • corpus luteum • Breast preparation for milk production MENSES = CYCLIC VARIATION IN HORMONE SECRETION

Ovarian Cycle Follicular phase • Hypothalamus → releasing hormones → ant. pituitary gland →

Ovarian Cycle Follicular phase • Hypothalamus → releasing hormones → ant. pituitary gland → gonadotropins • FSH → development of ovarian follicle which the follicular cells secrete estrogen (which dominates this phase) • LH → ovulation @ about 14 days & starts luteal phase

Ovarian Cycle Luteal phase • Dominated by the progesterone secreted by the corpus luteum

Ovarian Cycle Luteal phase • Dominated by the progesterone secreted by the corpus luteum • ↑ levels of estrogen & progesterone • Prevent release of gonadotropins • Build up endometrial lining (progesterone) in preparation for pregnancy

Uterine Cycle • Menstrual phase • Shedding of endometrial lining due to ↓ in

Uterine Cycle • Menstrual phase • Shedding of endometrial lining due to ↓ in ovarian hormones when corpus luteum dies • Proliferative phase • Buildup of endometrial lining after menstruation due to estrogen secretion • Secretory phase • Endometrial thickening from progesterone secretion

Pregnant State Human chorionic gonadotropin (h. CG) • Will be secreted by the trophoblastic

Pregnant State Human chorionic gonadotropin (h. CG) • Will be secreted by the trophoblastic cells of the embryo to maintain corpeus luteum to continue secreting hormones to maintain endometrial tissue