Anatomy Physiology The study of the body parts

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Anatomy & Physiology The study of the body parts and how they function

Anatomy & Physiology The study of the body parts and how they function

� Anatomy is the study of all the parts of the body, while Physiology

� Anatomy is the study of all the parts of the body, while Physiology is the study of how these parts work. takes in exactly the right amount of air so the fuel burns properly

Body Systems There are 11 different organ systems � Skeletal: bones, ligaments, joints �

Body Systems There are 11 different organ systems � Skeletal: bones, ligaments, joints � Nervous: nerves, brain, spinal cord � Circulatory: heart, arteries, veins, capillaries � Respiratory: lungs, diaphragm, nasal passages � Digestive: stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas � Muscular: muscles, tendons � Integumentary: skin, hair, sweat glands � Lymphatic: spleen, thymus, lymph nodes � Urinary: kidneys, bladder, ureters, uretha � Endocrine: glands, hormones � Reproductive: ovaries, uterus, testes, prostate

� See page 8 in textbook � Microscopic ~seen only through the lenses of

� See page 8 in textbook � Microscopic ~seen only through the lenses of a microscope �Macroscopic ~seen with the naked eye Cells Tissues Organs Systems Body

Homeostasis Our body’s goal: � To maintain life and health in spite of all

Homeostasis Our body’s goal: � To maintain life and health in spite of all the many changes, inside and out � To balance or stabilize all the variables � To stay within the set points/normal ranges � To overcome stress You stand up Blood Pressure drops

Control of Homeostasis Receptors sense changes, send message to brain You stand, BP drops

Control of Homeostasis Receptors sense changes, send message to brain You stand, BP drops Eat, glucose in blood Control center Brain Message to effectors Insulin made in pancreas Within brain Effectors make change Message to panreas BP rises Glucose into Cells Multiple systems working together to create homeostasis

The Animal Cell • This generic cell is microscopic • It has small organelles

The Animal Cell • This generic cell is microscopic • It has small organelles that perform the various functions • It reproduces itself using protein synthesis (See H/O: Cell Organelles)

Protein Synthesis � Proteins are long chains of amino acids � Examples: enzymes, antibodies

Protein Synthesis � Proteins are long chains of amino acids � Examples: enzymes, antibodies � Replication occurs in 2 steps: ◦ Transcription: in nucleus, DNA unwinds & m. RNA makes opposite chain ◦ Translation: in cytoplasm (rough ER), t. RNA directs the alignment of the amino acids

Transcription & Translation DNA, which is made of 4 chemicals: ◦ ◦ Adenosine Thymine

Transcription & Translation DNA, which is made of 4 chemicals: ◦ ◦ Adenosine Thymine Cytosine Guanine DNA unwinds Messenger RNA comes and copies the one side of the DNA Transfer RNA brings the correct amino acids to make the new protein

Cell Division � Mitosis (watch film) � 4 main steps: ◦ Prophase -- 1)

Cell Division � Mitosis (watch film) � 4 main steps: ◦ Prophase -- 1) DNA & Centrioles duplicate, 2) Spindle of microtubules develop, 3) They move to opposite poles, 4) Chromosomes move toward equator ◦ Metaphase – 1) Chromosomes now @ equator, 2) Spindle fibers attach to chromosomes and start pulling them apart ◦ Anaphase – ½ of each chromosome is being pulled toward a centriole on opposite poles ◦ Telophase – The plasma membrane/cell wall constricts, and dimples into 2 separate cells

The Plasma Membrane • Holds the cell together • Restricts what goes in and

The Plasma Membrane • Holds the cell together • Restricts what goes in and out • Lets the cell communicate with external environment Channel Protein Glycoprotein Phospholipid bilayer Phospholipids Cholesterol Glyolipid

Functions of the Membrane ~Delimits the cell ~Provides receptors ~Selective permeability: Allowing certain materials

Functions of the Membrane ~Delimits the cell ~Provides receptors ~Selective permeability: Allowing certain materials in or out of the cell while restricting others Small molecules can fit through channel protein ~Mediated Transport Carrier proteins accept specific shaped molecules Competition between similarly-shaped items Saturation will not allow more into the cell

Membrane Transport Processes Passive Transport: does not require cell energy (ATP) Diffusion – movement

Membrane Transport Processes Passive Transport: does not require cell energy (ATP) Diffusion – movement of ions/molecules from higher to lower concentration. Facilitated diffusion - when a carrier (channel protein) moves the molecule from higher to lower concentration.

Active Transport: requires cellular energy/ATP so that the cell is broken down Pumping -

Active Transport: requires cellular energy/ATP so that the cell is broken down Pumping - forcing ions in/out of the cell against diffusion Endocytosis – taking large molecules into the cell 1) Pinocytosis: dissolving proteins into liquids and forming vesicles inside cell. 2) Phagocytosis: cell engulfs particles Exocytosis – secreting material to the outside

 • Tissues are groups of cells that have a specific job • Histology

• Tissues are groups of cells that have a specific job • Histology is the study of tissues • 4 Types of tissues: - epithelial (lines the inner surface of some body cavities) - connective (fibrous, “cellular glue”) -nervous (found in the brain, spinal cord, PNS) -muscular (contracts to make movement)

Epithelial Tissue: • Attached close together • Form 2 surfaces - free surface: top

Epithelial Tissue: • Attached close together • Form 2 surfaces - free surface: top layer, open to surroundings - basal surface: bottom layer - basement membrane: “glue” that holds the tissue in place • The basement membrane is avascular – lacking blood vessels – gets nutrients from tissue below it. • Cells die rapidly, reproduce using Mitosos

Epithelial Tissue: Goblet Cells: • interspersed among epithelial cells • produce mucus for lubrication

Epithelial Tissue: Goblet Cells: • interspersed among epithelial cells • produce mucus for lubrication Basal Cells: • deeper cells near the bottom of stratified epithelial tissue Keratin: • waterproofed, fibrous protein Psuedostratified epithelium: • “falsely” layered

Epithelial Tissue: • Classified by 2 things: # of layers One layer: simple More

Epithelial Tissue: • Classified by 2 things: # of layers One layer: simple More than one layer: stratified Shape of cells Flat: squamous Shaped like a cube: cubiodal Tall like a column: columnar Example: one layer and shaped like a column? simple squamous ____________ epithelium

Glands: There are 2 types • Exocrine – secrete substances out through a duct

Glands: There are 2 types • Exocrine – secrete substances out through a duct 3 subtypes: 1. Merocrine: secrete without loosing cellular materials Example: sweat glands 2. Apocrine: have cytoplasm in their secretions Example: mammary glands 1. Holocrine: have secretions of disintegrated cells Example: sebaceous glands • Endocrine – secrete hormones directly into blood stream - there are NO ducts - tiny capillaries run through the cells

Connective Tissue • The infrastructure • Binds tissues together • Holds you together •

Connective Tissue • The infrastructure • Binds tissues together • Holds you together • Insulates • Very different cells from the epithelial types • Farther apart • Secrete chemicals: “ground substances”

Connective Tissue 4 Basic Types: 4 2 3 Connective Tissue Proper Cartilage Bone Blood

Connective Tissue 4 Basic Types: 4 2 3 Connective Tissue Proper Cartilage Bone Blood 1 1. 2. 3. 4.

Connective Tissue Proper FIBROBLAST/FIBROCYTE Loose Connective Tissue Adipose Tissue Dense Irregular Tissue Dense Regular

Connective Tissue Proper FIBROBLAST/FIBROCYTE Loose Connective Tissue Adipose Tissue Dense Irregular Tissue Dense Regular Tissue

Cartilage Chondrocytes: cells that produce special extracellular material Lucana: hollowed out spaces where cartilage

Cartilage Chondrocytes: cells that produce special extracellular material Lucana: hollowed out spaces where cartilage cells live 3 Types: • Hyaline cartilage • Elastic cartilage • Fibrocartilage Avascular No blood supply

Bone & Blood We will discuss later in other modules

Bone & Blood We will discuss later in other modules

Membranes 3 Categories: 1. Mucous membranes • Line tubes that open to the outside

Membranes 3 Categories: 1. Mucous membranes • Line tubes that open to the outside of the body • Examples: Digestive tract • They protect the body

2. Synovial membranes • Found around moveable joints • Used for lubrication • Example:

2. Synovial membranes • Found around moveable joints • Used for lubrication • Example: Knee joints 3. Serous membranes • Form thin, double layers around organs • Decrease friction • Secrete lubricating fluid inside the 2 layers

Stromal cells • “supporting” cells…form the intrastructure • provide structure or support for Parenchymal

Stromal cells • “supporting” cells…form the intrastructure • provide structure or support for Parenchymal cells • Scar tissue Parenchymal cells • “performance” cells…do the work • Provide actual function of the tissue • Have to be restored when damaged Cells are classified as 1 of the following categories • Labile cells – cells that undergo mitosis (epithelial cells) • Stable cells – undergoes mitosis only is needed (bone cells) • Permanent cells – cannot undergo mitosis (nerve cells) For repair to happen: 1. 2. A heart attack – parenchymal cells and permanent – destroyed, replaced with stomal cells, function is lost Skin injury – labile cells – undergo mitosis, function restored

Largest organ system Skin is the largest organ 12 -15% of body weight Layers:

Largest organ system Skin is the largest organ 12 -15% of body weight Layers: Epidermis ~ epithelial tissue Dermis ~ connective tissue Hypodermis ~ subcutaneous tissue/not skin JOBS: ~ protection against invasion, dehydration, sunburn ~ excrete wastes ~ receptor for senses ~ Vitamin D synthesis ~ temperature regulation ~ stores fat, glucose & vit D

EPIDERMIS Thin outermost layer of the skin Overlapping layers of dead cells: ~ are

EPIDERMIS Thin outermost layer of the skin Overlapping layers of dead cells: ~ are sloughed off (Exfoliation) ~ are replaced by the living layers beneath. ~ contain NO blood vessels ~ contain keratin (hard protein) JOBS: ~ protection ~ absorption of nutrients ~ homeostasis Melanocytes: ~ produce dark pigment ~ absorbs ultraviolet light

Thick innermost layer of the skin Loose connective tissue: ~ collagen (white protein) with

Thick innermost layer of the skin Loose connective tissue: ~ collagen (white protein) with elastin (yellow protein) ~ arranged in diffuse bundles and woven patterns JOBS: ~ touch receptor ~ blood circulation ~ gives elasticity without distortions

Below the skin, not really skin Also known as “SUBCUTANEOUS” 50% of the body’s

Below the skin, not really skin Also known as “SUBCUTANEOUS” 50% of the body’s fat is in the subcutaneous layer: ~ “Adipose tissue” JOBS: ~ insulation ~ energy storage ~ anchoring the skin

Hair ~ 5 million in skin of the body ~ only palms & soles

Hair ~ 5 million in skin of the body ~ only palms & soles are hairless Nails ~ protect sensitive ends of digits Glands ~ produce oil, sweat, wax

Follicle Hair ~ separate entity within the skin ~ maintained by dermal & epidermal

Follicle Hair ~ separate entity within the skin ~ maintained by dermal & epidermal compotents Dermal papilla ~ directs the hair follicle in growth & development ~ contains nerve fibers ~ penetrated by blood vessels Hair fibers ~ start (embryotic) as round cells near the DP ~ pushed upward/outward & flattened ~ become hardened & die Arrector pili ~ muscular tissue of the Root Sheath connected to the epidermis in the Bulge region ~ holds the hair stand erect ~ forms goose bumps when the skin is cold

Nail plate/body Nails ~ tough, opaque outer layer of dead cells & keratin Nail

Nail plate/body Nails ~ tough, opaque outer layer of dead cells & keratin Nail bed ~ layer of living tissue contains nerves & blood vessels Cuticle ~ edge of dead cells proximal to end of nail ~ adheres to nail plate preventing invasion of pathogens Nail root ~ produces keratin-containing cells ~ the cells are white @ 1 st, then turn opaque Lunula ~ white half-moon shaped visible portion of nail root

Glands Sebaceous glands ~ found near top of hair follicle ~ secrete sebum (oil)

Glands Sebaceous glands ~ found near top of hair follicle ~ secrete sebum (oil) ~ sebum coats hair shaft Sweat glands ~ found deep in the dermis & secrete sweat through pores ~ sweat contains: water, Na+, ammonia, creatinine, urea ~ body’s “air conditioner”: perspiration

3 Degrees of Burns First Degree: • killed cells in the epidermis • not

3 Degrees of Burns First Degree: • killed cells in the epidermis • not too bad, as these cells will go through mitosis • “partial-thickness burn” Second Degree: • Epidermis is completely destroyed • Some of the dermis is affected • Epidermis will be replaced because of the epithelial cells in hair • “partial thickness burn” Third Degree: • Both the epidermis and dermis have been destroyed • Need for skin grafting • “full-thickness burn”

Melanoma Skin Cancer -Most dangerous form of skin cancer -Results from uncontrolled mitosis of

Melanoma Skin Cancer -Most dangerous form of skin cancer -Results from uncontrolled mitosis of melanocytes Basal Cell Carcinoma -Uncontrolled mitosis of stratum basale layer -Removed with surgery Squamous Cell Carcinoma -Uncontrolled mitosis of the stratum spinosum cells -Controlled by surgery