Analysis of Occupational Change Data 1950 1990 FOR

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Analysis of Occupational Change Data 1950 -1990 FOR INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY

Analysis of Occupational Change Data 1950 -1990 FOR INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY

Learning Objectives �To understand how sociologists use empirical data, such as the U. S.

Learning Objectives �To understand how sociologists use empirical data, such as the U. S. Census, to generate knowledge �Help students apply the sociological imagination using Census data �Help students learn how to analyze and interpret quantitative data with controls �To gain experience in applying the logic of controls in bivariate tables �Teach students how to organize data for presentation �Assumes understanding of frequency distributions and cross-tabulations

Structure of the Assignment �Four parts; Separate due dates �Part I: Develop hypotheses about

Structure of the Assignment �Four parts; Separate due dates �Part I: Develop hypotheses about occupational change over time 1950 -1990 Do before they analyze the data �Part II: Get and organize data for presentation Make tables and charts for original and partial relationships �Part III: Analysis and Write Up The paper �Part IV: Family Intergenerational Mobility

Part I. Developing Your Hypotheses AN HYPOTHESIS IS A STATEMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN

Part I. Developing Your Hypotheses AN HYPOTHESIS IS A STATEMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO OR MORE VARIABLES.

Second Step �State that Sociological Imagination (SI) is the intersection of one’s biography &

Second Step �State that Sociological Imagination (SI) is the intersection of one’s biography & larger social phenomena �To demonstrate SI must identify larger phenomena that could shape behavior of individual people �Show to think about how larger events and/or policies can affect: Options people have Choices people make �Help students develop hypotheses about how occupational distributions change by gender, race, and education

Examples of Hypotheses �Durkheim’s research on Suicide: Group or societal social integration is inversely

Examples of Hypotheses �Durkheim’s research on Suicide: Group or societal social integration is inversely related to the rate of suicide, or The greater the social integration of a group the lower the suicide rate. The more people are equal in rank the more they will associate with each other. The older potential voters are the more likely they are to vote.

Examples of Hypotheses �Other Examples: The higher one’s level of education the greater one’s

Examples of Hypotheses �Other Examples: The higher one’s level of education the greater one’s income. The more students study for an exam the higher their exam score. The larger the group the more impersonal are members’ relationships. The more technology changes the greater the need for new occupations & more educated workers.

Your Hypotheses: �Develop three hypotheses about likely changes in the occupational distribution of: �

Your Hypotheses: �Develop three hypotheses about likely changes in the occupational distribution of: � 1. Females and males over time � 2. Blacks and whites over time � 3. People with different levels of education over time �You need a total of three (3) hypotheses for this assignment.

Develop Rationale for each Hypothesis �A rationale is an explanation for why the variables

Develop Rationale for each Hypothesis �A rationale is an explanation for why the variables are related. �What is your DV? Change in the distribution of workers across occupations over time; occupational change Occupations range from high to low in income, power and prestige �What are larger social factors/events that will: Affect opportunities to obtain new qualifications for jobs Shape job opportunities available to them Shape the jobs people choose

Rationale for Hypotheses �Possible larger social events: Technological & economic changes (advances) Social/political movements

Rationale for Hypotheses �Possible larger social events: Technological & economic changes (advances) Social/political movements Increased educational opportunities �See Timeline in Macionis text; My. Soc. Lab �How will these events affect the occupations of people of different: Gender? Race? Educational attainment levels?

Part II. The Organization and Presentation of the Data �Students will analyze data from

Part II. The Organization and Presentation of the Data �Students will analyze data from one state only- assigned by abbreviation, e. g. , MS, AL, AR, LA, TN, etc. �Get Census data from www. ssdan. net �Occupational distributions of population for five censuses, 1950 -1990 �Controls for gender, race, education

First Steps �Obtain data from SSDAN. net for their state �Create tables in SSSDAN

First Steps �Obtain data from SSDAN. net for their state �Create tables in SSSDAN to extract Illustration �Create nine charts and tables using Excel Illustration �Make Chart and Table Titles-reader friendly

Table 1. The Proportion of People Employed in Various Types of Occupations in Michigan

Table 1. The Proportion of People Employed in Various Types of Occupations in Michigan 1950 -1990. Type of Occupation Top. WC Otr. WC Service Top. BC Otr. BC Farm 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 17. 00% 20. 50% 20. 90% 22. 20% 25. 30% 17. 20% 23. 90% 24. 00% 27. 80% 29. 40% 9. 10% 12. 30% 12. 80% 12. 20% 12. 60% 18. 60% 14. 80% 15. 50% 13. 80% 12. 80% 28. 00% 24. 20% 25. 50% 22. 50% 18. 40% 10. 10% 4. 20% 1. 30% 1. 50%

Chart 1. The Proportion of Persons Employed in Various Types of Occupations in Michigan,

Chart 1. The Proportion of Persons Employed in Various Types of Occupations in Michigan, 1950 -1990. 35. 00% 30. 00% 25. 00% Top. WC 20. 00% Otr. WC Service 15. 00% Top. BC Otr. BC Farm 10. 00% 5. 00% 0. 00% 1950 1960 1970 Year 1980 1990

Rubric-Evaluation of Data Extraction/Table & Chart Creation Requirements Followed Directions Table Development Table presentation

Rubric-Evaluation of Data Extraction/Table & Chart Creation Requirements Followed Directions Table Development Table presentation and Conversion of Data Excellent (10 -9 pts) Good (8 -7 pts) Needs Improvement (6 pts) Failed to meet Requirements (0) Student followed all directions and had few to no grammatical/spelling errors. Student followed all directions but had more than three grammatical/spelling errors. Student did not follow all directions and/or had four or more grammatical/spelling errors. Student did not complete assignment by assigned due date. Results in 0 for entire assignment. Data was converted correctly for all 9 required tables and charts with the IVs and DVs in columns and rows respectively. Data was converted for all 9 tables/charts but on some variables were not placed correctly. Data was not converted for all tables and charts or the variables were not correctly placed on several. Data was not converted for less than 4 required tables/charts the variables were incorrectly placed or the wrong variables were used. All tables and charts were presented in a neat, reader friendly professional manner with full titles and correctly labeled variables and values. All tables and charts were presented in a neat, reader friendly professional manner but a few did not contain full titles and correctly labeled variables and values. Less than half of the tables and charts were presented in a neat, reader friendly professional manner and did not contain full titles and correctly labeled variables and values. Tables presented in spreadsheet form and both tables and charts did not contain full titles nor variable names.

Part III. Analysis and Write Up �Demonstrate: Analysis of the data—use national data How

Part III. Analysis and Write Up �Demonstrate: Analysis of the data—use national data How the distribution of occupations for each decade is a frequency distribution of the work people did in that year �Show comparison of these frequency distributions can reveal trends for: Whole state population Each control variable category

Part III continued �Next, show to compare trends across categories of control variables �Identify

Part III continued �Next, show to compare trends across categories of control variables �Identify trends—not detailed percents—for each control variable

Part III continued �Instruct how to organize write-up of research report �Suggested Outline: Introductory

Part III continued �Instruct how to organize write-up of research report �Suggested Outline: Introductory paragraph More detailed description of the problem and presentation of hypotheses & rationale Data and methods

Part III continued �Discussion of findings for total pop and subgroup populations �State whether

Part III continued �Discussion of findings for total pop and subgroup populations �State whether data support hypotheses �Conclusion – how is occupational change related to larger social phenomena?

Rubric-Evaluation of Paper on Stratification Part I Requirements Excellent Good Needs Improvement Introductory paragraph

Rubric-Evaluation of Paper on Stratification Part I Requirements Excellent Good Needs Improvement Introductory paragraph Student thoroughly discussed the topic of occupational change and included at least two references to course materials. Student briefly discussed the topic of occupational change but did not include any references to course materials. Student did not discuss the topic of occupational change. Student stated 4 hypotheses that correctly specified how overall occupational changes were affected by time and how these changes varied for people of different gender, race and educational level. The rationale for each hypothesis was correct and clearly stated. Student stated some hypotheses that specified how overall occupational changes were affected by time and how these changes varied for people of different gender, race and educational level. But some hypotheses were not correctly stated and the rationale for each hypothesis was sometimes correct and not always clearly stated. Student included one general hypothesis statement about how overall occupational change varied over time but not how these varied for people of different gender, race and education level. Some attempt was made to discuss the rationale for expected changes but was discussed fully. Student did not include hypotheses about occupational change or how people of different gender, race or educational level would be affected. In addition, no attempt was made to provide a rationale for occupational change. Student correctly identified data set and correctly referenced all data and variables in this section. Student correctly identified data set and most of the variables in this section Student struggled with identifying the data set and the variables in this section. Student omitted identification of or did not correctly identify data and/or variables in this section. Findings Student described the occupational changes across time without control and with control variables. Student demonstrated ability to discuss numerical information in a written format. Stated whether data supported hypotheses. Student attempted to discuss data using without control and with control but struggled with details and writing numerical information in a written format. Made some attempt to state whether data supported hypotheses. Student made a weak attempt to describe occupational changes across time without and with control variables and writing material in numerical format. Did not state whether findings supported hypotheses. Student made no attempt to discuss control variables, writing numerical information in a written format, or describe whether findings supported hypotheses. Conclusion Student demonstrated excellent critical thinking ability in specifying how occupational changes have been affected by larger social issues in the U. S. Student showed some critical thinking ability in specifying how occupational changes have been affected by larger social issues in the U. S. Student showed little critical thinking in specifying how the occupational changes have been affected by larger social issues in the U. S. Student made no attempt to write a conclusion about how occupational change is related to larger social issues in the U. S. Hypothesis Statement/Body Paragraph Methods/ Describe Data Failed to meet requirement

Part IV: Your Family’s Intergenerational Mobility �First, collect information from your family about the

Part IV: Your Family’s Intergenerational Mobility �First, collect information from your family about the occupations and educations of: Your parents Your grandparents Your great grandparents In addition gather as much information as you can about the siblings of the above 3 generations �Second, summarize the information about each generation and describe your family’s intergenerational pattern

Part IV: Your Family’s Intergenerational Mobility �Third, compare your family’s mobility pattern with the

Part IV: Your Family’s Intergenerational Mobility �Third, compare your family’s mobility pattern with the mobility that occurred in your state analysis. Assume family lived in state analyzed in Part III. Describe the similarity/difference in mobility patterns of your family to those people in your state. Describe how structural conditions and mobility may have affected your family’s class position over time. �Fourth, describe how your family’s mobility pattern has affected you and your siblings In the present and the future

Part IV: Your Family’s Intergenerational Mobility �Finally, explain how this exercise is an application

Part IV: Your Family’s Intergenerational Mobility �Finally, explain how this exercise is an application of the sociological imagination. Describe the extent to which social conditions or events have affected your family’s mobility pattern and your present social class location.