An Investigation of the Assistive Technology Supports and

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An Investigation of the Assistive Technology Supports and Transition from a Third-Level Environment to

An Investigation of the Assistive Technology Supports and Transition from a Third-Level Environment to the Workplace Andrew Costello Assistive Technology Officer Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Research Context – Need ? My role as the Assistive Technology Officer for Trinity

Research Context – Need ? My role as the Assistive Technology Officer for Trinity College Dublin is to introduce Assistive technology as an aid or to overcome a task of difficulty in a particular area TCD Disability Student numbers Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Research Context – why ? • Disabled users are 2. 5 less likely to

Research Context – why ? • Disabled users are 2. 5 less likely to gain full employment to enables users , NDA, 2014 • 33% of people with disabilities of working age are employed, compared to 66% of nondisabled people, CS 0, 2012 • However most disabled young people see work as vital to their life as it gives them status, independence and choice and allows them achieve “adult status” (Mc. Ginty & Fish, 1992) Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Research Context – why ? The level of people with a disability working in

Research Context – why ? The level of people with a disability working in employment is disproportionate compared to the able-bodied population Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

 • Via a 1: 1 needs assessment each student in need of assistive

• Via a 1: 1 needs assessment each student in need of assistive technology is to ensure such support allows the student gain independence not just for their academic journey but for their working life • This research aimed to investigate barriers in such transition and effectiveness of such supports from an academic phase to an educational phase and look at the development of exit assessment for students to undertake to build confidence in their assistive technology use after leaving a supported environment; such as college Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Research Context – What did the Literature say ? Not as simple as just

Research Context – What did the Literature say ? Not as simple as just giving a loan: • Lack of use of the WEAG grant the Workplace Equipment Adoption Grant out of a budget of € 198, 000 only € 48, 000 was distributed • Lack of use of Universal design principles in every day IT systems – Bjork 2009 • The benefit of such an UD approach leads to improved quality of life and to the reduction of barriers to services and environments. – Joines, 2009 • Lack of expertise support – Tobias 2003 • Increased Organisational culture needed– Bryan 2007 Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Assistive Technology assessment models : • Matching person and technology (Scherer 2004) • International

Assistive Technology assessment models : • Matching person and technology (Scherer 2004) • International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Assistive Technology assessment model: HAAT - Human Activities Assistive Technology – Cook & Hussy

Assistive Technology assessment model: HAAT - Human Activities Assistive Technology – Cook & Hussy QUEST - Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology (Demers 2002 ) Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Present Employability Law & Implications In Irish law, there are 4 statues: • Disability

Present Employability Law & Implications In Irish law, there are 4 statues: • Disability Act 2005 - De Wispelaere and Walsh (2007) reiterate this view; the act is a missed opportunity in the construction of disability rights within Ireland • Employment Equality Acts 1998 -2011 - prohibiting discrimination on nine grounds – Buckley 2000 - the term “reasonable” is open to interpretation” • Equal status Act 2000 -2011 & Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005 Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Research methodology • In my role of Assistive Technology Officer I had agreement from

Research methodology • In my role of Assistive Technology Officer I had agreement from my Service to interview eight participants • 4 current final year undergraduate students • 4 graduates from TCD who have worked in full time employment • All interviews took place within the library complex of The Ussher Library in Trinity College, Dublin. The location of the interviews chosen by each individual participant. Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Participant Breakdown : Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Participant Breakdown : Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Qualitative Research / Life time history approach- • Research aims to make a connection

Qualitative Research / Life time history approach- • Research aims to make a connection between the users’ events in the use of technology and activities in which the technology has been used. Hatch and Wisniewski (1995) state that the life history approach “places narrative accounts and interpretations in a broader context – personal, historical, social, institutional, and/or political”. - Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

 • Themes were identified using thematic analysis. Thematic analysis is described by Braun

• Themes were identified using thematic analysis. Thematic analysis is described by Braun and Clarke (2006) as: “Identifying, analysing and reporting patterns (themes) within data. It minimally organises and describes your data set in (rich) detail. However, frequently it goes further than this, and interprets various aspects of the research topic”. • Analysis will outlined the use of a five pass process as outlined by Auerbach (2003). • The themes will be coded using a variety of colour to allow ease of identification and examination of key patterns from each participant to form the results from this investigation Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Red = Green = Research Themes analysis • From and from the analysis of

Red = Green = Research Themes analysis • From and from the analysis of the text indefinable themes were extracted. These themes were extracted from patterns of responses to the semi structured interview process based on the HAAT model • Organise Sub-themes by Grouping Repeating Ideas into Coherent Categories Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin A Supportive Environment Assistive Technology Design & Procurement Purple = Independence and Ability Sky Blue = Assessment of Need Grey = Awareness of Irish Law

Results – 5 main Barriers to AT Transition 1. The need for support Environment

Results – 5 main Barriers to AT Transition 1. The need for support Environment The Support topic highlighted benefits of expert assistive technology support available to the participants while in an educational environment, following this, in a work setting, a lack of expert support results in frustration that curtail the transition and satisfaction with assistive technology. SF 1: “I needed to be able to use the technology. The support I received in college was a huge factor in enabling my use; if something went wrong I could ring and get support. I learnt unless I did something really stupid I wasn't going to actually break it unless I dropped it” Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

- The comparison to the Working environment : - GF 3: “I'm only anxious

- The comparison to the Working environment : - GF 3: “I'm only anxious in my working environment because I'm not sure what response I’m going to get, they generally do not know what I'm talking about” - GM 2: “you have to go through enormous hoops to persuade the IT department to allow you to install it. It worked perfectly at home, but in a work environment it is impossible. ” Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

2. Assistive Technology Design and Procurement All eight participant themes commented on the usability

2. Assistive Technology Design and Procurement All eight participant themes commented on the usability , high cost and use of low tech supports such as mobile apps in breaking down barriers in accessing information in an accessible format GM 2 comments: “I've always felt it would be much better if the technology I wanted to use would be more mainstream. In some ways it's become like the i. Phone or the Apple laptop…you don't need to buy anything separate. The trouble with separate things is historically it's a bolt-on, it's an afterthought, it does not interface well. ” SF 3: “Things should go is towards integration, where assistive technology features are inbuilt, this stops you from having a cumbersome device. I'd be more positive towards technology that is geared towards the Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin mainstream, and ergonomically better”

2. Assistive Technology Design and Procurement The use of open source software also breaks

2. Assistive Technology Design and Procurement The use of open source software also breaks down barriers as it allows the user to adapt the software as required : GM 3 says: “At the moment I use NVDA, which I find is very good. It's free and open source. The fact that it is open source has been a great benefit, I was able to facilitate NVDA to display in Irish, so it's not just that it's free, but it's open source, so I can contribute to it as well and it benefits the system. That type of software has changed my views; you can actually influence it by working on it” Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

3. Ability and Perception • These themes centred on the independence gained from engagement

3. Ability and Perception • These themes centred on the independence gained from engagement in such technology, Exclusion and perception factors that prohibit the disclosure of such need and how their non use of their AT creates barriers • SF 1 commented: “When I go further in whatever direction I go in technology is an essential part of my life. Technology is essential on a daily basis for me, I will always use it. I think asking for support enables me to become more independent and I have had to learn a lot”. Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

SM 2: “My own perception would be a barrier, for example, embarrassment associated with

SM 2: “My own perception would be a barrier, for example, embarrassment associated with the terminology. When it is dyslexia, people might dismiss it as being nothing. All of those issues were coming to play”. GF 3 said: “A lot of the time there are parts of my work that aren't accessible and the solution largely is that I would get one my teammates to do it. I said to them. "That's fine in the short term", but my personality, which is largely independent, and I don't like people doing stuff for me. Plus everybody else is doing their own work. I don't think that is fair to disrupt them because the setup is not correct”. Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

4. Assessment of Need Results shows the advantages of such a formal process to

4. Assessment of Need Results shows the advantages of such a formal process to set expectations and build supportive relationships for further training as needed. Results from graduated participants highlight the non-existence of a similar process in an employment environment and the barriers that occur as a result SM 4 comments: “when I came to college I was definitely accurately accessed. I was sat down and was shown different machines and different PCs that could benefit me. ” GM 2: “It puts the onus back on the individual, like myself, it's more a person without a disability does not have to do. But I felt I had to do it myself. It would honestly be far better if there was somebody in the organisation who would be proactively realising this third party Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin application has an accessibility issue”

5. Legal Provisions • The lack of awareness of these provisions by the younger

5. Legal Provisions • The lack of awareness of these provisions by the younger participants strongly contrasted with a greater knowledge and use from the mature participants. The sentiment of a lack of enforcement and available loopholes were also noticeable. • SM 2: “I didn't really understand that if somebody is in employment then they should be reasonably accommodated. I didn't know it was enshrined into law. I would expect it would be. I have a vague understanding of it. ” • SF 3: “I know the college access policy for sure. Irish law? No, not all, I know better equality and all that, that's all” Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Results – Quest Quantitative Additionally each student completed a modified Quest tool evaluating their

Results – Quest Quantitative Additionally each student completed a modified Quest tool evaluating their satisfaction under two main areas service and the device Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Results – Quest Quantitative Quest Results - Students 5 4. 75 4. 5 4

Results – Quest Quantitative Quest Results - Students 5 4. 75 4. 5 4 3. 5 3 3. 1 3. 66 3. 65 4. 75 4. 08 4. 25 4 3. 75 2. 5 2 1. 5 1 0. 5 0 SF 1 SM 2 Device satisfaction Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin Support Satisfaction SF 3 Overall SM 4

Results – Quest Quantitative Quest Results - Graduates 5 4. 75 4. 62 4.

Results – Quest Quantitative Quest Results - Graduates 5 4. 75 4. 62 4. 5 4 3. 5 3. 66 3. 41 3. 25 3. 08 3 2. 75 2. 25 2 1. 91 1. 5 1 1 1 0. 5 0 GM 1 GM 2 Device satisfaction Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin GF 3 Support Satisfaction Overall GF 4

What was the output from the research ? - Development of the MEP •

What was the output from the research ? - Development of the MEP • From the result gained via the interview & quest assessment a draft Exit assessment for use by students looking to transition to a working environment was constructed • MET assessment tool is designed to be a concise assessment allowing both the exiting student or current employee to highlight areas of concern for future use of assistive technology that may have been previously used within an educational environment • The MET also aims to provide a potential link to external resources, which may be a government agency or educational disability service for expert help if needed by the employer. • The MET highlights the potential use of open source software, either free or low cost, as an alternative, and to eliminate the barrier of cost. Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Development of a Transition to Employment Support Transition Planning Tool Career Pathways Service &

Development of a Transition to Employment Support Transition Planning Tool Career Pathways Service & Resources Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin • Building personal strategies • Enabling and Building your Career • Disclosure & RAs • Fit • Advice for Students & transition to work • Enabling the Work Environment (Nolan & Gleeson, 2015)

1 st draft of the MET: Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

1 st draft of the MET: Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Development of the MET: Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Development of the MET: Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Online –E-Portfolio integration • Aims to support students in: • Gathering work experiences •

Online –E-Portfolio integration • Aims to support students in: • Gathering work experiences • Reflecting upon possible disability needs in the workplace. • Exploring career options. • Developing work relevant skills • Developing strategies to manage their disability in the workplace. Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Pebblepad Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Pebblepad Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Pebblepad Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Pebblepad Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Online –E-Portfolio integration • Collaboration with other HEIs; UCD, DIT, DCU & Marino Institute

Online –E-Portfolio integration • Collaboration with other HEIs; UCD, DIT, DCU & Marino Institute of Education. • 110 Current Students and 10 Graduates engaged this year so far Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Development of the MET Review of the MET by Technology Professionals Dell Ireland –

Development of the MET Review of the MET by Technology Professionals Dell Ireland – True-ability office • “I think it would benefit us to raise awareness of what assistive technologies have been used before, it would save time and resources in going through assessments. It would be great at that time to have some history on the person, obviously it would be good to keep in touch with previous employers or support organisations that have looked after that person. This is why it is much easier to go through an employment process with a government agency like WAM because they have been looked after by them and they know there are issues”. Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Development of the MET Assistive technology officer- DCU –Henry Langton “It's not that the

Development of the MET Assistive technology officer- DCU –Henry Langton “It's not that the employers, say “I have an employee with a disability”. It's “How can I support this user? ”, it's not a case of fear , it a case have not been able to provide accommodations for that reason, some employers are reluctant to hire staff with disabilities because they feel that they do not have the appropriate skills”. Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Future Work: • To get further feedback on the effectiveness of the Matching Employees

Future Work: • To get further feedback on the effectiveness of the Matching Employees with technology (MET); a future roll-out and piloting within an existing employment area could be looked at. This further work could engage fully with the respective management structures and view current existing employment policy along with any potential employee requesting or presently using assistive technology accommodations. • Future work coming from this investigation would be an extended pilot involving a greater cohort of students across separate higher education institutions. Increasing the use of the MET amongst a greater cohort of current education students would increase validity of the study and allow for a greater integration of the MET amongst a wide range of disability cohorts. Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Questions ? Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Questions ? Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin