American Society in Transition Political Machines City governments

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American Society in Transition

American Society in Transition

Political Machines City governments were often run by corrupt “political machines” The leaders of

Political Machines City governments were often run by corrupt “political machines” The leaders of these machines were known as “political bosses” The machines often provided jobs and other services to immigrants and the poor in exchange for their votes The machines often had the support of other local business leaders

Political Bosses By controlling elected officials in local government, political bosses were able to

Political Bosses By controlling elected officials in local government, political bosses were able to hand out government “Patronage” jobs Used to reward loyal workers Bosses used their control of city hall to make illegal profits on city contracts or by collecting bribes Boss Tweed of Tammany Hall in New York City controlled thousands of city workers and influenced the operations of city services Tweed benefited from the support of the Irish immigrants Tweed often overpaid himself on construction projects and land sales, stealing millions from the city

The Good Side of Political Bosses The political machines were corrupt but they did

The Good Side of Political Bosses The political machines were corrupt but they did play a useful role. The political bosses helped immigrants settle into their new homeland, finding housing, and obtain jobs. Helped immigrants become naturalized citizens and even provided money to help them through hard times Political machines were often the ones to get a street paved, extend a water pipe, or approve construction… But these services came at a VERY high price

Immigration Must know push / pull factors New Immigrants: Southern & Eastern Europe Poland

Immigration Must know push / pull factors New Immigrants: Southern & Eastern Europe Poland Italy Austria-Hungary Greece Russia Jewish, Catholic, or Orthodox Christian instead of Protestant Spoke No English

Immigrant Experience New York : Ellis Island San Francisco, California : Angel Island Steerage

Immigrant Experience New York : Ellis Island San Francisco, California : Angel Island Steerage TB or other diseases were sent back Americanized Assimilated Melting Pot Example: Marriage

Rise of Nativism Believed people of different race, religion or nationalities were inferior Believed

Rise of Nativism Believed people of different race, religion or nationalities were inferior Believed that the native born, White Protestant American was superior to all immigrants Think “racist” on STERIODS!

Chinese Exclusion Act 1882

Chinese Exclusion Act 1882