- Slides: 34
AMERICAN IMPERIALISM US Foreign Policy: 18771914
IMPERIALISM Imperialism is a policy in which stronger nations extend their political or military control over weaker territories.
DESIRE FOR MILITARY STRENGTH Other nations around the world were establishing a global military presence. Admiral Alfred T. Mahan urged government officials to build American naval power in order to compete. § Led to the construction of the Great White Fleet (Modern US Navy) § Required refueling stations & naval bases: § Hawaii § Cuba
THE GREAT WHITE FLEET
THIRST FOR NEW MARKETS The US needed raw materials for its factories & new markets for its agricultural & manufactured goods.
BELIEF IN CULTURAL SUPERIORITY Some Americans combined Social Darwinism with a belief in the racial superiority of Western Europeans. They argued that the US had a responsibility to spread Christianity & “civilize” the world’s “inferior” people.
WHITE MAN’S BURDEN
THE US TAKES HAWAII Hawaii had been economically important to the US since the 1790 s. By the mid-1800 s, American-owned sugar plantations made up about 75% of the islands’ wealth. In 1887, the US built a naval base at Pearl Harbor.
THE US TAKES HAWAII In 1891, a new nationalist queen named Liliuokalani took the throne. American business groups, led by Sanford B. Dole & supported by an unauthorized battalion of US troops, led a revolt. They demanded assistance from the United States.
THE US TAKES HAWAII By the time President Grover Cleveland found out about the plot, a treaty to annex the islands had already reached Congress. Cleveland refused to sign the treaty & demanded the reseating of the queen & the withdrawal of US troops. In 1894, Dole & his followers declared Hawaii an independent republic. Four years later, it was made an American territory.
THE FIGHT FOR CUBA Beginning in 1868, Cubans launched a series of unsuccessful revolts against Spain responded by exiling the revolutionary leaders, including Jose Marti who continued to agitate for independence from New York.
THE FIGHT FOR CUBA In February 1895, Jose Marti returned to Cuba to lead a second struggle for independence. § Deliberately destroyed property, especially American-owned mills & plantations. § Hoped to provoke American intervention. § Died in the struggle, becoming an instant hero.
THE FIGHT FOR CUBA Spanish general Valeriano Weyler tried to crush the rebellion by moving the Cuban population into concentration camps. § 300, 000 Cubans were moved & thousands died from hunger & disease. § Convinced many Americans to support the rebel cause.
THE FIGHT FOR CUBA Weyler’s actions fueled a headline war between William Randolph Hearst & Joseph Pulitzer. § They printed exaggerated accounts of events that came to be known as yellow journalism. § Hearst is quoted as saying, “You furnish the pictures, I’ll furnish the war!”
THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR A letter written by Spanish minister Enrique Dupuy de Lome that ridiculed President Mc. Kinley was published in the New York Times. Days later, the battleship USS Maine blew up in Havana Harbor, killing 260 American soldiers. § Although there was no proof, the explosion was blamed the Spanish & Hearst offered a $50, 000 reward for the capture of the man responsible. The US formally declared war on April 11, 1898.
THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR The first battle of the Spanish American War took place in the Philippines. WHY? § Within hours, Commodore George Dewey had destroyed every Spanish ship. § Two months later, Spain surrendered the islands.
THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR The US War Department was unprepared for war in Cuba. The American strategy was to control the port city of Santiago. Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders helped gain control of the city at the Battle of San Juan Hill. The US Navy sank the entire Spanish fleet off the coast of Cuba.
RESULTS OF THE WAR: TREATY OF PARIS (1898) Spain gave up all claims to Cuba. The United States gained territory in Puerto Rico & Guam. Spain turned over the Philippines for $20 million. Territorial gains strengthened the military & economic position of the United States.
A QUIET LITTLE GAME
PROBLEMS WITH EXPANSION US imperialism became a key issue in the 1900 presidential campaign between William Mc. Kinley & William Jennings Bryan. § Bryan was endorsed by the Anti-Imperialist League. § Opposed imperialism on commercial, constitutional, religious, & humanitarian grounds. Why is there a silver coin on his campaign poster?
ELECTION OF 1900
PROBLEMS WITH EXPANSION Citizens living in newly conquered territories brought cases regarding their constitutional rights to the US Supreme Court. § In 1901, the Court ruled in the Insular Cases that the Constitution & its protections did not follow the flag. § A citizen in a conquered territory did not necessarily have the protections of the US Constitution. § Instead, Congress decided their rights.
PROBLEMS WITH EXPANSION In the same year, the Foraker Act, established a limited popular government Puerto Rico: § Gave Puerto Ricans US citizenship. § Allowed Puerto Ricans to be drafted into the US military. § Puerto Rico is a protectorate of the US still today
PROBLEMS WITH EXPANSION In 1901, the US Senate agreed to the Platt Amendment: § Replaced the earlier Teller Amendment (1898) which had left the control of Cuba up to its people. § Allowed the US to intervene in Cuban affairs when it believed its own interests were threatened. § Leased the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base to the US. § Effectively made Cuba a US protectorate until the 1934 Treaty of Relations.
THE PHILIPPINE-AMERICAN WAR Fighting began when Emilio Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence then declared war on the US (1899). § Led to horrible guerrilla warfare between the Filipino revolutionaries & the Americans ( § Ended in 1902 following Aguinaldo’s capture
THE OPEN DOOR IN CHINA At the turn of the century, American businessmen saw China as vast market for US goods. § Feared Japanese & European spheres of influence in the region § Led to Secretary of State John Hay’s Open Door Policy – a nonbinding international agreement that kept the Chinese market open to all foreign nations § Influenced the Boxer Rebellion – a nationalist movement that sought to remove all foreigners from China by force
THE PANAMA CANAL The US – supported by President Theodore Roosevelt – hoped to use a canal through Central America to expand trade & strengthen its defenses. § Offered Columbia $10 million for the rights to control the project indefinitely – rejected § Supported the Panama Revolution § Signed the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (1903) for perpetual control over the canal zone for $10 million + $250, 000 in annual rent § Critics branded Roosevelt’s actions as “gunboat diplomacy”
THE PANAMA CANAL
THE ROOSEVELT COROLLARY To prevent European military incursions into the Western Hemisphere, Roosevelt announced a corollary (1904) to the Monroe Doctrine: § Stated that the US would come to the aid of any Latin American nation experiencing financial trouble § Exempted Argentina, Brazil, & Chile as civilized nations capable of running their own affairs
THE ROOSEVELT COROLLARY
THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR The Russo-Japanese War (1904 -05) threatened to topple the careful balance of power the US was trying to maintain in China. § Roosevelt offered to negotiate a peace settlement § The Treaty of Portsmouth signaled the emergence of Japan as a world power & the US as a force in world diplomacy § Roosevelt was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906
THE GENTLEMAN’S AGREEMENT In 1906, the San Francisco Board of Education voted to send Chinese, Japanese, & Korean children to segregated schools. § Roosevelt intervened to control the damage to US -Japanese relations § California revoked the segregation order § Japan agreed to deny passports to Japanese workers intending to immigrate to the US
TAFT’S DOLLAR DIPLOMACY President Taft encouraged US investment in Latin America in order to ensure US economic domination over the region. § Sent US forces to protect American interests in the region § Supported a 1911 revolt in Nicaragua § Led to US involvement in the country until 1933
WILSON’S MORAL DIPLOMACY Wilson thought that the US had a moral duty to spread democracy & protect nations under threat of totalitarianism. § Introduced the concept of self-determination § Invaded Haiti & the Dominican Republic & purchased the Virgin Islands § Intervened in the Mexican Revolution to capture Pancho Villa after he killed Americans in several border towns