American History Immigration and Urbanization Immigration from Europe

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American History Immigration and Urbanization Immigration from Europe, Asia, Mexico, and the Caribbean forces

American History Immigration and Urbanization Immigration from Europe, Asia, Mexico, and the Caribbean forces cities to confront overcrowding. Local and national political corruption sparks calls for reform. 1 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Immigration and Urbanization ESSENTIAL QUESTION Did the benefits of immigrating to the

American History Immigration and Urbanization ESSENTIAL QUESTION Did the benefits of immigrating to the United States at the turn of the century outweigh the challenges? LESSON 1 The New Immigrants LESSON 2 The Challenges of Urbanization LESSON 3 Politics in the Gilded Age LESSON 4 New Technologies LESSON 5 The Dawn of Mass Culture 2 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 1 The New Immigrants Immigration from Europe, Asia, the Caribbean, and

American History Lesson 1 The New Immigrants Immigration from Europe, Asia, the Caribbean, and Mexico reach a new high in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries. 3 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 1 The New Immigrants Through the “Golden Door” • Some immigrants

American History Lesson 1 The New Immigrants Through the “Golden Door” • Some immigrants seek better lives; others temporary jobs Europeans • 1870– 1920, about 20 million Europeans arrive in U. S. • Many flee religious persecution: Jews driven from Russia by pogroms • Population growth results in lack of farmland, industrial jobs • Reform movements, revolts influence young who seek independent lives 4 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued…

American History Lesson 1 Through the “Golden Door” (continued) Chinese and Japanese • About

American History Lesson 1 Through the “Golden Door” (continued) Chinese and Japanese • About 300, 000 Chinese arrive; earliest one attracted by gold rush — work in railroads, farms, mines, domestic service, business • Japanese work on Hawaiian plantations, then go to West Coast — by 1920, more than 200, 000 on West Coast The West Indies and Mexico • About 260, 000 immigrants from West Indies; most seek industrial jobs • Mexicans flee political turmoil; after 1910, 700, 000 arrive • National Reclamation Act creates farmland, draws Mexican farmers 5 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 1 A Difficult Journey • Almost all immigrants travel by steamship,

American History Lesson 1 A Difficult Journey • Almost all immigrants travel by steamship, most in steerage Ellis Island • Ellis Island—chief U. S. immigration station, in New York Harbor • Immigrants given physical exam by doctor; seriously ill not admitted • Inspector checks documents to see if meets legal requirements • 1892– 1924, about 17 million immigrants processed at Ellis Island Angel Island • Angel Island—immigrant processing station in San Francisco Bay • Immigrants endure harsh questioning, long detention for admission 6 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 1 Life in the New Land • Immigrants face many adjustments

American History Lesson 1 Life in the New Land • Immigrants face many adjustments to foreign culture Cooperation for Survival • Immigrants must create new life: find work, home, learn new ways • Many seek people who share cultural values, religion, language — ethnic communities form • Friction develops between “hyphenated” Americans, native-born Seeking Opportunities • Many immigrants lack skills, take low-paying jobs — factories, mills, mines • People of Asian descent became farm workers 7 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 1 Immigration Restrictions • Immigrants and native-born Americans begin to clash

American History Lesson 1 Immigration Restrictions • Immigrants and native-born Americans begin to clash The Rise of Nativism • Melting pot—in U. S. people blend by abandoning native culture • • — immigrants don’t want to give up cultural identity Nativism—overt favoritism toward native-born Americans Nativists believe Anglo-Saxons superior to other ethnic groups Some object to immigrants’ religion: many are Catholics, Jews 1897, Congress passes literacy bill for immigrants; Cleveland vetoes — 1917, similar bill passes over Wilson’s veto 8 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued…

American History Lesson 1 Immigration Restrictions (continued) Anti-Asian Sentiment • Nativism finds foothold in

American History Lesson 1 Immigration Restrictions (continued) Anti-Asian Sentiment • Nativism finds foothold in labor movement, especially in West — fear Chinese immigrants who work for less • Labor groups exert political pressure to restrict Asian immigration • 1882, Chinese Exclusion Act bans entry to most Chinese The Gentlemen’s Agreement • Nativist fears extend to Japanese, most Asians in early 1900 s — San Francisco segregates Japanese schoolchildren • Gentlemen’s Agreement—Japan limits emigration — in return, U. S. repeals segregation 9 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 2 The Challenges of Urbanization The rapid growth of cities force

American History Lesson 2 The Challenges of Urbanization The rapid growth of cities force people to contend with problems of housing, transportation, water, and sanitation. 10 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 2 The Challenges of Urbanization Urban Opportunities • Industrial boom leads

American History Lesson 2 The Challenges of Urbanization Urban Opportunities • Industrial boom leads to rapid urbanization Immigrants Settle in Cities • Industrialization leads to urbanization, or growth of cities • Most immigrants settle in cities; get cheap housing, factory jobs • Americanization movement—assimilate people into main culture • Schools, voluntary groups teach citizenship skills — English, American history, cooking, etiquette • Ethnic communities provide social support 11 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued…

American History Lesson 2 Urban Opportunities (continued) Migration from Country to City • Farm

American History Lesson 2 Urban Opportunities (continued) Migration from Country to City • Farm technology decreases need for laborers; people move to cities • Many African Americans in South lose their livelihood • 1890– 1910, move to cities in North, West to escape racial violence • Find segregation, discrimination in North too • Competition for jobs between blacks, white immigrants causes tension 12 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 2 Urban Problems • Increasing urban population presents concerns for cities

American History Lesson 2 Urban Problems • Increasing urban population presents concerns for cities Housing • Working-class families live in houses on outskirts or boardinghouses • Later, row houses built for single families • Immigrants take over row houses, 2– 3 families per house • Tenements—multifamily urban dwellings, are overcrowded, unsanitary • Social Stratification—organization of people into social classes by wealth Poverty • Poor working environments, low-paying jobs with long hours and dangerous conditions • Unions and strikes are organized 13 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued…

American History Lesson 2 Urban Problems (continued) Transportation • Mass transit—move large numbers of

American History Lesson 2 Urban Problems (continued) Transportation • Mass transit—move large numbers of people along fixed routes • By 20 th century, transit systems link city to suburbs Water • 1860 s cities have inadequate or no piped water, indoor plumbing rare • Filtration introduced 1870 s, chlorination in 1908 Sanitation • Streets: manure, open gutters, factory smoke, poor trash collection • Contractors hired to sweep streets, collect garbage, clean outhouses — often do not do job properly • By 1900, cities develop sewer lines, create sanitation departments 14 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued…

American History Lesson 2 Urban Problems (continued) Crime • As population grows, thieves flourish

American History Lesson 2 Urban Problems (continued) Crime • As population grows, thieves flourish • Early police forces too small to be effective Fire • • Fire hazards: limited water, wood houses, candles, kerosene heaters Most firefighters volunteers, not always available 1900, most cities have full-time, professional fire departments Fire sprinklers, non-flammable building materials make cities safer 15 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 2 Reformers Mobilize • Concerned Americans focus efforts on poverty The

American History Lesson 2 Reformers Mobilize • Concerned Americans focus efforts on poverty The Settlement House Movement • Social welfare reformers work to relieve urban poverty • Social Gospel movement—preaches salvation through service to poor • Settlement houses—community centers in slums, help immigrants • Run by college-educated women, they: — provide educational, cultural, social services — send visiting nurses to the sick — help with personal, job, financial problems • Jane Addams founds Hull House with Ellen Gates Starr in 1889 • Social Mobility—the ability of families or individuals to move into a higher social class 16 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 3 Politics in the Gilded Age Local and national political corruption

American History Lesson 3 Politics in the Gilded Age Local and national political corruption in the 19 th century leads to calls for reform. 17 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 3 Politics in the Gilded Age The Emergence of Political Machines

American History Lesson 3 Politics in the Gilded Age The Emergence of Political Machines • Growing cities seek new government structure The Political Machine • Political machine—organized group that controls city political party • Give services to voters, businesses for political, financial support • After Civil War, machines gain control of major cities • Machine organization: precinct captains, ward bosses, city boss 18 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued…

American History Lesson 3 The Emergence of Political Machines (continued) The Role of the

American History Lesson 3 The Emergence of Political Machines (continued) The Role of the Political Boss • Whether or not city boss serves as mayor, he: — controls access to city jobs, business licenses — influences courts, municipal agencies — arranges building projects, community services • Bosses paid by businesses, get voters’ loyalty, extend influence Immigrants and the Machine • Many captains, bosses 1 st - or 2 nd -generation Americans • Machines help immigrants with naturalization, jobs, housing 19 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 3 Municipal Graft and Scandal • Influential politicians fall victim to

American History Lesson 3 Municipal Graft and Scandal • Influential politicians fall victim to corruption Election Fraud and Graft • Machines use electoral fraud to win elections • Graft—illegal use of political influence for personal gain • Machines take kickbacks, bribes to allow legal, illegal activities The Tweed Ring Scandal • 1868 William M. Tweed, or Boss Tweed, heads Tammany Hall in NYC • Leads Tweed Ring, defrauds city of millions of dollars • Cartoonist Thomas Nast helps arouse public outrage — Tweed Ring broken in 1871 20 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 3 Civil Service Replaces Patronage • Political corruption spreads to state

American History Lesson 3 Civil Service Replaces Patronage • Political corruption spreads to state and national levels Patronage Spurs Reform • Patronage—government jobs to those who help candidate get elected • Civil service (government administration) are all patronage jobs • Some appointees not qualified; some use position for personal gain • Reformers press for merit system of hiring for civil service 21 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued…

American History Lesson 3 Civil Service Replaces Patronage (continued) Reform Under Hayes, Garfield, and

American History Lesson 3 Civil Service Replaces Patronage (continued) Reform Under Hayes, Garfield, and Arthur • Republican Rutherford B. Hayes elected president 1876 • • • — names independents to cabinet — creates commission to investigate corruption — fires 2 officials; angers Stalwarts 1880, Republican independent James A. Garfield wins election Stalwart Chester A. Arthur is vice-president Garfield gives patronage jobs to reformers; is shot and killed As president, Arthur urges Congress to pass civil service law Pendleton Civil Service Act—appointments based on exam score 22 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued…

American History Lesson 3 Civil Service Replaces Patronage (continued) Governor Theodore Roosevelt • Reforms

American History Lesson 3 Civil Service Replaces Patronage (continued) Governor Theodore Roosevelt • Reforms took place at the state level — puts public interest ahead of partisan politics — refuses to fill civil service jobs through patronage 23 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 3 Business Buys Influence • Alliance between government and big business

American History Lesson 3 Business Buys Influence • Alliance between government and big business stronger than ever • Business wants high tariffs; Democrats want low tariffs • 1884, Democrat Grover Cleveland wins; cannot lower tariffs • 1888, Benjamin Harrison becomes president, supports higher tariffs — wins passage of Mc. Kinley Tariff Act • 1892, Cleveland reelected, supports bill that lowers Mc. Kinley Tariff — rejects bill that also creates income tax — Wilson-Gorman Tariff becomes law 1894 • 1897, William Mc. Kinley becomes president, raises tariffs again 24 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 4 New Technologies Advances in science and technology helped solve urban

American History Lesson 4 New Technologies Advances in science and technology helped solve urban problems, including overcrowding. 25 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 4 New Technologies Technology and City Life • Technological advances meet

American History Lesson 4 New Technologies Technology and City Life • Technological advances meet the nation’s needs for communication, transportation, and space Skyscrapers • 1890, 58 cities have 50, 000 people; 1900, 4 of 10 people in cities • Invention of elevators, internal steel skeletons lead to skyscrapers —Louis Sullivan designs Wainwright Building • Skyscrapers solve urban problem of limited, expensive space —Daniel Burnham designs Flatiron Building 26 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued…

American History Lesson 4 Technology and City Life (continued) Electric Transit • Before Civil

American History Lesson 4 Technology and City Life (continued) Electric Transit • Before Civil War, horse-drawn streetcars run on iron rails • By 1900, electric streetcars (trolleys) run from suburbs to downtown • Some cities build elevated trains or subways Engineering and Urban Planning • Steel-cable suspension bridges link city sections • Need for open spaces inspires science of urban planning • Frederick Law Olmstead spearheads movement for planned urban parks — 1857, helps design Central Park 27 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued…

American History Lesson 4 Technology and City Life (continued) City Planning • Chicago’s population

American History Lesson 4 Technology and City Life (continued) City Planning • Chicago’s population growth results in unregulated expansion • Daniel Burnham draws plan for city with parks along Lake Michigan —designs White City for 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition Feeding Cities • Farmers produce more crops on the same amount of land with fewer workers • George Washington Carver’s idea of crop rotation, new uses for crops • Haber-Bosch process created chemical fertilizers • Refrigerated railroad cars and food preservatives 28 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued…

American History Lesson 4 Advances in Communication • New developments in communication brought the

American History Lesson 4 Advances in Communication • New developments in communication brought the nation closer together A Revolution in Printing • By 1890, U. S. literacy rate almost 90% • Growing demand for newspapers, magazines, books • Mills produce cheap paper that withstands high-speed presses • Faster production, lower costs make periodicals more affordable 29 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued…

American History Lesson 4 Advances in Communication (continued) Airplanes • Orville, Wilbur Wright use

American History Lesson 4 Advances in Communication (continued) Airplanes • Orville, Wilbur Wright use engines to fly “heavier-than-air” craft —first successful flight Dec. 1903 • By 1920, first transcontinental air mail established Photography Explosion • Pre-1880 s, photography requires heavy equipment, time • George Eastman develops light-weight equipment, studio processing • 1888, introduces Kodak camera, easy to operate —millions use Kodak camera —helps create field of photojournalism 30 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 5 The Dawn on Mass Culture As Americans have more time

American History Lesson 5 The Dawn on Mass Culture As Americans have more time for leisure activities, a modern mass culture emerges. 31 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 5 The Dawn of Mass Culture American Leisure • Americans enjoy

American History Lesson 5 The Dawn of Mass Culture American Leisure • Americans enjoy new leisure activities at the end of the 19 th century Amusement Parks • Cities begin setting aside green space for recreation • Amusement parks built on outskirts with picnic grounds, rides Bicycling and Tennis • Early bicycles dangerous; at first, bicycling is male-only sport • Safety bicycle increases popularity of sport; women ride too • Tennis imported from Britain; becomes popular 32 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued…

American History Lesson 5 American Leisure (continued) Spectator Sports • Americans become avid fans

American History Lesson 5 American Leisure (continued) Spectator Sports • Americans become avid fans of spectator sports • By turn of century, boxing, baseball become profitable businesses Baseball • 1845, Alexander J. Cartwright organizes club, sets down rules • National League forms 1876; American League forms 1900 • Discrimination leads to Negro National, Negro American Leagues 33 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 5 The Spread of Mass Culture • Education expands cultural opportunities,

American History Lesson 5 The Spread of Mass Culture • Education expands cultural opportunities, new technology promotes mass entertainment Promoting Fine Arts • Artists like Thomas Eakins promote realism—portray life as it is • Ashcan School paints urban life, working people • European abstract art introduced; many find difficult to understand Philosophy • Pragmatism—philosophy aimed to reconcile tensions between science, morality, and religion • Pragmatic ideals influenced government officials 34 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued…

American History Lesson 5 The Spread of Mass Culture (continued) Performing Arts • Americans

American History Lesson 5 The Spread of Mass Culture (continued) Performing Arts • Americans choose from music, drama, circus, and motion pictures —Vaudeville theater performances —Barnum & Bailey Circus • Motion pictures more widespread than live performances —William Dickson develops Kinetograph — 3, 000 Nickelodeon theaters by 1907 • Ragtime music sweeps the nation • Thomas Edison invents the phonograph in 1877 35 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued…

American History Lesson 5 The Spread of Mass Culture (continued) Popular Fiction • By

American History Lesson 5 The Spread of Mass Culture (continued) Popular Fiction • By 1900, thousands of free circulating libraries in country • Most people like dime novels—glorified adventure tales of the West • Some want more serious, realistic portrayal of ordinary people, life • Novelist, humorist Samuel Langhorne Clemens, or Mark Twain: — rejects high culture yet writes American classics • Galleries, libraries try to raise cultural standards Mass-Circulation Newspapers • Newspapers use sensational headlines, stories to capture readers • Joseph Pulitzer buys New York World, pioneers popular innovations • William Randolph Hearst—NY, San Francisco papers exaggerate stories 36 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued…

American History Lesson 5 The Spread of Mass Culture (continued) Mass Circulation Newspapers •

American History Lesson 5 The Spread of Mass Culture (continued) Mass Circulation Newspapers • Newspapers use sensational headlines, stories to capture readers • Joseph Pulitzer buys New York World, pioneers popular innovations • William Randolph Hearst—NY, San Francisco papers exaggerate stories Promoting Fine Arts • Artists like Thomas Eakins promote realism—portray life as it is • Ashcan School paints urban life, working people • European abstract art introduced; many find difficult to understand 37 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 5 New Ways to Sell Goods • Americans changed the way

American History Lesson 5 New Ways to Sell Goods • Americans changed the way they shopped Urban Shopping • 1890, first shopping center opens in Cleveland—glass-topped arcade • Retail shopping districts form near public transportation The Department Store • 1865, Marshall Field opens first U. S. department store in Chicago — stresses personal service — pioneers bargain basement 38 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued…

American History Lesson 5 New Ways to Sell Goods (continued) The Chain Store •

American History Lesson 5 New Ways to Sell Goods (continued) The Chain Store • Chain stores offer same merchandise under same owners for less — buy in quantity, limit personal service Advertising • Advertising explosion: $10 million spent 1865, $95 million 1900 • Advertising in periodicals, billboards, sides of buildings Catalogs and RFD • Montgomery Ward, Sears Roebuck catalogs bring goods to small towns • Rural free delivery (RFD)—post office delivers direct to every home 39 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History This is the end of the chapter presentation of lecture notes. Click

American History This is the end of the chapter presentation of lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button. 40 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Print Slide Show 1. On the File menu, select Print 2. In

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