- Slides: 15
American Diplomacy & Unit Review Please do the following: – Turn in the completed PSI to the box – Pick up Class Notes #23 – Take out your binder check rubric We will: *examine how TR and Wilson helped to shape American foreign policy *review for the unit test (Thursday, March 20)
Theodore Roosevelt & Woodrow Wilson Realism vs. Idealism in American Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy Challenge: Crisis in the Ukraine • What is happening in the Ukraine and why should we be concerned? • What should the United States do about the crisis in the Ukraine? • Imagine that you have been asked to give advice to President Obama – what would you advise him to do? Why?
TR’s Realism • Promotion of national interests • Embrace of balance-of-power politics • Exertion of spheres of influence (Caribbean & the Pacific) • America’s role: a Great Power among several, but also potentially the “world’s policeman” • Key document: Roosevelt’s Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
TR’s “Big Stick” Policies • President Roosevelt (1901 -09) pushed for a more active role for the United States in world affairs to match its growing economic power • He supported a continued build-up of the U. S. Navy, resulting in the “Great White Fleet” • He asserted America’s interests in Latin America by issuing the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine – asserting America’s right to intervene in the Western Hemisphere in order to promote regional security and keep out “foreign” interference; first applied to the Dominican Republic in 1904 -05
TR’s Foreign Policy Achievements • In 1903, TR offered tacit support to Panamanian revolutionaries, making possible a deal with Panama that resulted in America’s acquisition of the Canal Zone and construction of the Panama Canal (completed by 1914); gave the U. S. Navy the ability to move quickly between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans • In 1906, TR mediated the Portsmouth Treaty, which ended the Russo-Japanese War and earned him a Noble Peace Prize • Both actions demonstrated his realist approach to foreign policy, aimed at achieving U. S. national interests through a mix of diplomacy and the use of force
Wilson’s Idealism • Promotion of national values (liberty, equality) • Embrace of international law and the concept of a global community of nations • Exertion of influence through collective security and international cooperation (Wilson’s League of Nations) • America’s role: a “beacon of hope” to the world; exceptionalism in action; global “missionary” • Key Document: The Fourteen Points “Peace without victory”
Wilson Promotes U. S. Ideals • Wilson tried to preserve American neutrality in World War I, believing it was not in America’s interests to be involved in an immoral “European” war • Eventually, the Lusitania incident (1915), the Zimmermann Telegram (1917), and unrestricted German submarine warfare led him to ask Congress to go to war by April 1917 • He tried to respect Latin American neighbors but did intervene militarily in countries such as Mexico and Haiti to protect American interests
Wilson’s Fourteen Points • In January 1918, Wilson presented his famous Fourteen Points, in which he laid out his ideal vision for the post-war world • Read the document and summarize each of his main points: *I. Open Treaties – no secret agreements *II. Freedom of Navigation *III. Removal of Trade Barriers - Free Trade! *IV. Arms Reduction *V. -XIII. Self-determination for all peoples *XIV. Collective Security – League of Nations!
The Treaty of Versailles • After Germany agreed to an armistice in November 1918, the victorious Allied powers met in Paris to hammer out a peace treaty. • Wilson led the U. S. delegation to the Paris Peace Conference and joined with the leaders of Britain, France, and Italy to create the “Big Four” who led the negotiations • Despite Wilson’s efforts to promote his Fourteen Points, the Treaty of Versailles punished Germany for her role in the war by including a “war-guilt” clause and requiring over $30 billion in German reparations payments
The “Big Four” David Lloyd George (British Prime Minister), Vittorio Orlando (Italian Prime Minister), George Clemenceau (French President), Woodrow Wilson (U. S. President)
The Treaty Ratification Fight • Wilson returned home in 1919 to encourage the Senate to ratify the treaty but the Senate refused, citing concerns over Article X, which would possibly require the United States to provide military support to the League of Nations in a crisis • Congress did not want to give up its power to declare war to an international organization • Wilson tried to encourage the American people to support ratification but suffered a stroke and remained an invalid for the rest of his presidency
Before we leave…. • Prepare your unit materials for the binder check and for use on the open-note unit test on Thursday • Select the essay topic that you will write on (progressivism and imperialism) and begin work on the essay outline sheet provided to you • If you did not turn in your PSI, you must complete it and turn it in no later than Thursday