American Chemical Society Journals and Magazines and Books

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American Chemical Society Journals and Magazines and Books, Oh My! A Look at ACS'

American Chemical Society Journals and Magazines and Books, Oh My! A Look at ACS' Use of NLM Tagsets Dan O'Brien, ACS Publications Presented at JATS-Con, 1 -Nov-2010

What We'll Cover • Intro – ACS, Products, Processes – Framework & terminology for

What We'll Cover • Intro – ACS, Products, Processes – Framework & terminology for discussing customizations • ACS Pubs' Use of NLM Tagsets – Overall Approach – Journals – Books – Magazine • Successes & Lessons Learned American Chemical Society 2

Character Introductions • ACS & ACS Pubs • Journals • Books • Magazine •

Character Introductions • ACS & ACS Pubs • Journals • Books • Magazine • Processes • Terminology American Chemical Society 3

Introductions: ACS • Professional membership organization – Chartered by U. S. Congress in 1876

Introductions: ACS • Professional membership organization – Chartered by U. S. Congress in 1876 – Non-profit – Over 160, 000 members • ACS Publications Division ("ACS Pubs") – Journals – Magazine – Books – On a quest American Chemical Society 4

Introductions: ACS Journals • 40 peer-reviewed titles • 300, 000 annual published pages •

Introductions: ACS Journals • 40 peer-reviewed titles • 300, 000 annual published pages • ~50% volume published weekly • Among highest ISI impact factors • "King" of publishing forest American Chemical Society 5

Introductions: Books • Symposium Series • Around 30 titles published annually • Around 25

Introductions: Books • Symposium Series • Around 30 titles published annually • Around 25 chapters per book • Hard covers, rigid content format American Chemical Society 6

Introductions: C&EN Magazine • Chemical & Engineering News • Weekly Print & Web issues

Introductions: C&EN Magazine • Chemical & Engineering News • Weekly Print & Web issues • Daily Online News • "Business. Week" for chemists • Flexible format, loose content definitions • More than meets the eye American Chemical Society 7

Introductions, cont. • Pressure for product innovation: Wicked Which of the West • NLM

Introductions, cont. • Pressure for product innovation: Wicked Which of the West • NLM Tagsets – has the answers: Wizard of Oz American Chemical Society 8

Introductions: Processes • Journals & Books: – Standard scholarly publishing model – XML-first article/chapter

Introductions: Processes • Journals & Books: – Standard scholarly publishing model – XML-first article/chapter based production • Automated Pre-Editing (Inera Auto. Redact) • Technical Editing • Automated Post-Editing & Validations – Article ASAP publication (Journals) – Issue/Book publication (Journals & Books) • Magazine: – Staff writers vs. authors – Feature articles, Thematic issues – Story Online News? Issue? – Edit-to-Fit American Chemical Society 9

Introductions: Journal Process American Chemical Society 10

Introductions: Journal Process American Chemical Society 10

Introductions: Books Process American Chemical Society 11

Introductions: Books Process American Chemical Society 11

Introductions: Magazine Process American Chemical Society 12

Introductions: Magazine Process American Chemical Society 12

Terminology • Tag – a bit of XML markup: an element, attribute, etc. •

Terminology • Tag – a bit of XML markup: an element, attribute, etc. • Tag Definition – the coding (in DTD or XSD syntax) that declares the tag name and what its allowed to do. • Module – a way of logically organizing tag definitions, allowing reuse for multiple schemas. • Tagset – a collection of related tag definitions forming a complete vocabulary, usually stored within a set of interrelated modules • Schema – an application of a tagset to form a specific content model American Chemical Society 13

Terminology Tagset Module Tag definition A Schema (DTD, XSD, etc. ) Tag definition B

Terminology Tagset Module Tag definition A Schema (DTD, XSD, etc. ) Tag definition B Tag definition C Module Tag definition D Schema (DTD, XSD, etc. ) Module Tag definition dependencies American Chemical Society 14

Terminology – "Customization Levels" Tagset is used "As-Is" without customizations American Chemical Society Tagset

Terminology – "Customization Levels" Tagset is used "As-Is" without customizations American Chemical Society Tagset not directly used; just "informs" your approach 15

Terminology – "Customization Levels" As-Is Extended American Chemical Society Reduced Customized Built From Informed

Terminology – "Customization Levels" As-Is Extended American Chemical Society Reduced Customized Built From Informed By 16

Terminology – "Customization Levels" As-Is Extended Reduced Customized Built From Informed By Public version

Terminology – "Customization Levels" As-Is Extended Reduced Customized Built From Informed By Public version is used without changes or modification Superset of public tagset is used Subset of the public schema is used Combo of Substantial Extensions + changes: Reductions renamed tags, altered tag hierarchies, etc. Only the design philosophy of public tagset is used <xyz> <a/> <b/> </xyz> <xyz> <a/> <b/> <c/> </xyz> <abc> <a> <b/> </abc> <aa/> <bb/> <cc/> </abc> XML is compatible Public Custom XML not compatible? XML not compatible! American Chemical Society 17

Terminology – "Customization Implementation Methods" Overrides, leaving original public tag definitions versions intact American

Terminology – "Customization Implementation Methods" Overrides, leaving original public tag definitions versions intact American Chemical Society Modified original public tag definitions 18

Terminology – "Customization Implementation Methods" Overrides Mixed Modified Tagset Module Modul e Custom Schema

Terminology – "Customization Implementation Methods" Overrides Mixed Modified Tagset Module Modul e Custom Schema (DTD, XSD, etc. ) Tag definition A Tag definition B Tag definition C Modul e Public Schema (DTD, XSD, etc. ) Modul e Tag definition D Modul e Tag definition dependencies American Chemical Society 19

Terminology – "Customization Implementation Methods" Overrides Mixed Modified Tagset Module Tag definition A Custom

Terminology – "Customization Implementation Methods" Overrides Mixed Modified Tagset Module Tag definition A Custom Schema (DTD, XSD, etc. ) Tag definition B Tag definition C Modul e Public Schema (DTD, XSD, etc. ) Modul e Tag definition D Modul e Tag definition dependencies American Chemical Society 20

Terminology – "Customization Profile" Customization Levels Customization Implementation Methods Overrides Mixed Modifications As-is Extended

Terminology – "Customization Profile" Customization Levels Customization Implementation Methods Overrides Mixed Modifications As-is Extended Reduced Customized Built from Informed by American Chemical Society 21

The Journey: ACS Pubs' Use of NLM Tagsets

The Journey: ACS Pubs' Use of NLM Tagsets

ACS Pubs' Use of NLM Tagsets – Overview & Approach • Leverage a public

ACS Pubs' Use of NLM Tagsets – Overview & Approach • Leverage a public schema, or develop one from scratch? • If use a public schema, would customization be needed? (i. e. , where on the "Customization Levels” spectrum? ) – Product drivers !! – Process drivers !! – ACS Terminology !? • If customization would be needed: – How much customization was needed? (scoping) – What customizations are needed? (details) – How to implement the customizations? (i. e. , where on the "Implementation Methods" spectrum? ) American Chemical Society 23

ACS Journals' Use of NLM Tagsets • • Production vs. Delivery What we use

ACS Journals' Use of NLM Tagsets • • Production vs. Delivery What we use and why Customization Profile Highlights of Customizations American Chemical Society 24

ACS Journal Production: What we use • Custom-built DTD based loosely on NLM Journal

ACS Journal Production: What we use • Custom-built DTD based loosely on NLM Journal Archiving & Interchange v 2. 2 • ~2005, as NLM tagset was beginning to increase in prominence for STM publishing • Pre-2010: Monolithic tagset & schema used for editing, page composition, interchange with web delivery and 3 rd parties • Late 2010: New version of tagset supporting multiple schema flavors: – "X" – External & Delivery Interchange – "P" – Internal Production – "L" – Page Layout American Chemical Society 25

ACS Journal Production: What we use ACS Journal v 1. 03 DTDs External/Interchange DTD

ACS Journal Production: What we use ACS Journal v 1. 03 DTDs External/Interchange DTD American Chemical Society ACS Journal v 1. 03 Tagset Core tagset modules 26

ACS Journal Production: What we use ACS Journal v 1. 03 DTDs Production DTD

ACS Journal Production: What we use ACS Journal v 1. 03 DTDs Production DTD External/Interchange DTD ACS Journal v 1. 03 Tagset Production-specific tagset features extend core modules Core tagset modules Overrides of tag definitions American Chemical Society 27

ACS Journal Production: What we use ACS Journal v 1. 03 DTDs Layout DTD

ACS Journal Production: What we use ACS Journal v 1. 03 DTDs Layout DTD Production DTD External/Interchange DTD ACS Journal v 1. 03 Tagset Page layout specific tagset features extend production-specific modules Production-specific tagset features extend core modules Core tagset modules Overrides of tag definitions American Chemical Society 28

ACS Journal Production: Why • No public tagset met the minimum requirements for –

ACS Journal Production: Why • No public tagset met the minimum requirements for – ACS Journal Product – without undesirable product limitations – ACS Journal Process – without increasing costs – Allowing ACS Pubs Terminology • Without significant staff training & documentation updates • Without risking rejection • NLM's Journal tagset came closest – Could have used massive extensions? – ACS Pubs Terminology pushed us into "Built From" American Chemical Society 29

ACS Journal Production: Customization Profile Customization Levels Customization Implementation Methods Overrides Mixed Modifications As-is

ACS Journal Production: Customization Profile Customization Levels Customization Implementation Methods Overrides Mixed Modifications As-is Extended Reduced Customized Built from ACS Journal Production Informed by American Chemical Society 30

ACS Journal Production: Customizations – Terminology NLM ACS <fig> with @fig-type <fig>, <chart>, <scheme>

ACS Journal Production: Customizations – Terminology NLM ACS <fig> with @fig-type <fig>, <chart>, <scheme> <abstract> with @abstract-type <abstract> <synopsis> <dek> <graphic> with @content-type <abstract-graphic> <toc-graphic> <title-page-graphic> <bio-pic> <media> American Chemical Society <weo>, <toc-weo> 31

ACS Journal Production: Customizations – Process NLM ACS <article> <document> <front> <metadata> <journal-meta> <article-meta>

ACS Journal Production: Customizations – Process NLM ACS <article> <document> <front> <metadata> <journal-meta> <article-meta> <document-meta> <processing-meta> <body> <back> <sub-article>, <response> American Chemical Society <sec> beefed up to act as quasi "sub -article" 32

ACS Journal Production: Customizations – Product NLM ACS <nlm-citation> (v 2. 3), <element-citation> (v

ACS Journal Production: Customizations – Product NLM ACS <nlm-citation> (v 2. 3), <element-citation> (v 3. 0) <acs-titles>, <acs-no-titles>, <acs-biochem> n/a <chemical-name>, <chemical-process>, <caution> <live-change> and related tags <tie-bar-start/>, <tie-bar-end/> American Chemical Society 33

ACS Journal Production: Customizations – Product, cont. NLM ACS n/a Math. ML 2 extensions:

ACS Journal Production: Customizations – Product, cont. NLM ACS n/a Math. ML 2 extensions: <ACS: marker> <object-group> (now available in Math. ML 3) n/a CALS Table extensions @row-type = list of types to receive special handling @indent-left = amount + unit @indent-left-style = {"full", "first-line", "hanging"} @spacing-before, @spacing-after American Chemical Society 34

ACS Journal Delivery: What we use • Online delivery system: based on Literatum from

ACS Journal Delivery: What we use • Online delivery system: based on Literatum from Atypon • Literatum speaks "NLM Journal Archive & Interchange" • Common base tagset ≠ XML content compatibility – Differing schemas – Differing tagging expectations. . . see Figure <xref rid="xfca 3"/>. vs. . see Figure <xref rid="xfca 3">4</xref>. American Chemical Society 35

ACS Journal Delivery: What we use • Two-part content interface 1. Production system: "ACS-Delivery-Prep"

ACS Journal Delivery: What we use • Two-part content interface 1. Production system: "ACS-Delivery-Prep" (export ) 2. Delivery system: "ACS 2 NLM" lexer ( import) Both advantages & disadvantages + Insulates Production developers from Delivery intricacies + Delivery system tagging can evolve without Production - Occasional failure point - New products, production tagging changes = ACS 2 NLM lexer changes American Chemical Society 36

ACS Journal Delivery: Customization Profile Customization Levels Customization Implementation Methods Overrides Mixed Modifications As-is

ACS Journal Delivery: Customization Profile Customization Levels Customization Implementation Methods Overrides Mixed Modifications As-is Extended ACS Journal Delivery System Reduced Customized Built from ACS Journal Production Informed by American Chemical Society 37

ACS Books' Use of NLM Tagsets • What we use and why • Customization

ACS Books' Use of NLM Tagsets • What we use and why • Customization Profile • Highlights of Customizations American Chemical Society 38

ACS Books: What we use and why Drivers • Delivery System: Leverage our new

ACS Books: What we use and why Drivers • Delivery System: Leverage our new Literatum-based delivery platform. • Composition: Leverage Arbortext Publishing Engine for highlyautomated XML-based page composition. • Like Journals: Don't re-invent the XML wheel. • Unlike Journals: Books had unique product characteristics of their own; different type of wheel. • Book + Chapter production: – Individual Chapter level: production editing and some composition – Whole Book level: final book composition, indexing – Delivery: combination of both book and chapter XML & PDF deliverables. American Chemical Society 39

ACS Books: What we use and why Answers • Delivery System: – Literatum already

ACS Books: What we use and why Answers • Delivery System: – Literatum already supported an Extended version of NLM Book v 2. 3 – Production & Delivery could share a common tagset! • Composition: Extended NLM Book v 2. 3 fit the bill • Like Journals: – Extended NLM Book v 2. 3 had CALS table model – Many elements & structures were similar to ACS Journal tagset, easing adoption • Unlike Journals: Extended NLM Book v 2. 3 addressed almost all book-specific metadata & processing needs • Book + Chapter production: gap! Solution: Xinclude – Allows "link book to chapter" instead of "copy chapter into book" American Chemical Society 40

ACS Books: Customization Profile Customization Levels Customization Implementation Methods Overrides Mixed Modifications As-is Extended

ACS Books: Customization Profile Customization Levels Customization Implementation Methods Overrides Mixed Modifications As-is Extended ACS Journal & Book Delivery System Reduced Customized Built from ACS Book Production ACS Journal Production Informed by American Chemical Society 41

ACS Books: Customization Highlights • Addition of XInclude – Allows a chapter XML to

ACS Books: Customization Highlights • Addition of XInclude – Allows a chapter XML to be processed both as stand-alone document AND within context of entire book • Use of OASIS Table Model (instead of default XHTML Table model) • Addition of Doc. Book <index> Model • Addition of <book-series-meta> section (similar to <journal-meta>) American Chemical Society 42

ACS Books: Customization Highlights XInclude Book DTD Chapter XMLs Book XML <book> <book-series-meta>… <book-meta>…

ACS Books: Customization Highlights XInclude Book DTD Chapter XMLs Book XML <book> <book-series-meta>… <book-meta>… <body> <book-part>… American Chemical Society Book XML <book> <book-series-meta>… <book-meta>… <body> <xi: include hef="ch 1. xml"/> <xi: include hef="ch 2. xml"/> <xi: include hef="ch 3. xml"/> <book-part>… 43

ACS C&EN Magazine's Use of NLM Tagsets • What we use and why •

ACS C&EN Magazine's Use of NLM Tagsets • What we use and why • Customization Profile • Highlights of Customizations American Chemical Society 44

ACS Magazine: What we use and why • What: A customized version of the

ACS Magazine: What we use and why • What: A customized version of the ACS Journal Tagset – (Which was "informed by" NLM Journal Tagset) • Drivers: – Ability to archive a "content of record" that is format independent – Ability to serve as technology-neutral "content interchange format" • Automated web delivery • External content syndication • Other contenders: DITA for Publications, Doc. Book, EPUB, PRISM, News. ML, American Chemical Society 45

ACS Magazine: Customization Profile Customization Levels Customization Implementation Methods Overrides Mixed Modifications As-is Extended

ACS Magazine: Customization Profile Customization Levels Customization Implementation Methods Overrides Mixed Modifications As-is Extended ACS Journal & Book Delivery System Reduced Customized ACS Book Production Built from ACS C&EN Magazine ACS Journal Production Informed by American Chemical Society 46

ACS Magazine: Customization Highlights • Amorphous, modular content structures: XInclude – Same content produced

ACS Magazine: Customization Highlights • Amorphous, modular content structures: XInclude – Same content produced as • Single article in print • Several distinct pages online – Web-only articles & article components – Blur between articles & subarticles – Graphics, tables, media have separate production lifecycles, joined later • Non-contiguous Pagination • Ads American Chemical Society 47

ACS Magazine: Customization Highlights • Flexible, recursive categorization model – Print/web name, internal code,

ACS Magazine: Customization Highlights • Flexible, recursive categorization model – Print/web name, internal code, source/type • "CO 2 Sequestration" vs. "Carbon Dioxide Sequestration" – RSS feeds – Alternate topic-oriented TOCs • Special content constructs – Dek – Eyebrow – Pull quotes American Chemical Society 48

ACS Magazine: Customization Highlights American Chemical Society 49

ACS Magazine: Customization Highlights American Chemical Society 49

ACS Pubs' Use of NLM Tagsets – Summary Tagset Lineage & Content Interchange Map

ACS Pubs' Use of NLM Tagsets – Summary Tagset Lineage & Content Interchange Map American Chemical Society 50

Successes & Lessons Learned • Tagging & Technology • People American Chemical Society 51

Successes & Lessons Learned • Tagging & Technology • People American Chemical Society 51

Successes & Lessons - Technical 1. Monolithic vs. specialized schemas 2. Use of XInclude

Successes & Lessons - Technical 1. Monolithic vs. specialized schemas 2. Use of XInclude for Books & Magazine American Chemical Society 52

Successes & Lessons - Technical 3. ACS Pubs' hosted "Validations service" • Internal staff

Successes & Lessons - Technical 3. ACS Pubs' hosted "Validations service" • Internal staff • Internal systems • External vendors 4. Use of XML for ACS Mobile American Chemical Society 53

Successes & Lessons - People 1. Busting the NLM DTD "compatibility" myth 2. "XML

Successes & Lessons - People 1. Busting the NLM DTD "compatibility" myth 2. "XML as a product" mentality American Chemical Society 54

Successes & Lessons - People 3. Specifying XML requirements via "Three-legged stool" or package:

Successes & Lessons - People 3. Specifying XML requirements via "Three-legged stool" or package: a) XML DTD/Schema b) Documentation: Tagging Conventions & Rendering Expectations c) XML Samples American Chemical Society 55

Q&A American Chemical Society 56

Q&A American Chemical Society 56