- Slides: 23
AMERICA IN WWI
WILSON “KEPT US OUT OF WAR” IN 1916 • By April 2, 1917, “we are glad … to fight…for the ultimate peace of the world and for the liberation of its peoples…The world must be made safe for democracy…the right is more precious than peace. ”
THE AMERICAN MILITARY • ONLY 32, 000 volunteered after war declaration – Army less than 200, 000 – Not many officers had combat experience Selective Service Act – May 1917 – Required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service – By the end of 1918, 24 million men had signed up By the end of the war, 2 million troops had reached Europe and 1. 5 million saw combat – Most had not attended high school – 1 in 5 was foreign-born (immigrants) – 400, 000 were African American
THE AMERICAN NAVY • To build up the Navy, the US government does the following… • ***Exempted shipyard workers from the draft and deferred others to keep them working, also gave them certain benefits • US Chamber of Commerce created a public relations campaign to emphasize the importance of shipyard work • Gave flags to families of shipyard workers… just like the flags given to families of soldiers • Urged people to give shipyard workers rides to work • ***Parts were built all over the nation for ships and assembled in the yard (saves time) • ***The government took over commercial and private ships, and converted them for transatlantic WAR use
THE CONVOY SYSTEM & NAVAL DEFENSES • Heavy guards of destroyers escort merchant ships back and forth across the Atlantic in groups • By 1917, they had cut naval losses in half • US Navy lays a 230 mile barrier of mines from Scotland to Norway – Designed to keep the German U-Boats out of the Atlantic • All of these changes diminish the power of the German U-Boat attacks, thus taking away Germany’s greatest weapon
NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN & AFRICAN AMERICANS True sons of freedom
AFRICAN AMERICANS IN WWI • 400, 000 served in WWI • More than half served in France • Served in segregated units and were excluded from the Navy and Marines • Most were assigned to noncombat duties • 369 th Infantry Regiment • All black unit in France • Two members – Needham Roberts and Henry Johnson – received the French “cross of war” (highest military honor)
WOMEN IN WWI • Women were not allowed to enlist in the Army • Women were able to join the Army Corps of Nurses • BUT denied army rank, pay, and benefits • 13, 000 women accepted noncombat positions in the Navy • Served as nurses, secretaries, telephone operators • Full military rank!
MEN ON THE GROUND IN EUROPE • General John J Pershing (remember him? ? ? ) commanded the American Expeditionary Force (AEF Video) • American infantrymen were nicknamed “doughboys” • New Weapons: • Machine guns • Poison gas • Tanks • Airplanes • Diesel engines
EXPANDING THE POWER OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT War Industries Board – Bernard Baruch Food Administration – Herbert Hoover Railroad Administration – William Mc. Adoo National War Labor Board – W. H. Taft & Frank P. Walsh
EXPANDING THE POWER OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT War Industries Board – Bernard Baruch Encouraged companies to use mass production techniques AND eliminate waste by standardizing products Production in the US increased by 20% Applied price controls at wholesale level, but that meant prices went UP for consumers
EXPANDING THE POWER OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT Fuel Administration Rationed gasoline and heating oil “gasless Sundays” and “lightless nights” to conserve fuel March 1918 – adopted Daylight Savings Time to conserve daylight (proposed by Benjamin Franklin in the 1770 s) Took advantage of the long summer days
WAR ECONOMY Union membership goes UP Work hours are increased Child labor Dangerously “sped up” production In order to stop unions, Wilson creates the National War Labor Board in 1918 Workers who refused to obey could lose draft exemptions “work or fight” Did try to improve work conditions
EXPANDING THE POWER OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT Food Administration Instead of rationing, Hoover encourages the following: “gospel of the clean plate” One day a week be “meatless, ” “sweetless, ” “wheatless, ” “porkless, ” etc Victory Gardens Would grow vegetables and fruits in yards and public parks
SELLING THE WAR • Committee on Public Information (CPI) • The Committee on Public Information was the US’s first propaganda ministry – Speeches – movie reels – newspaper articles – posters – 4 minute men Helped make an unpopular war, popular!
THINK ABOUT THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. ARE THESE IMAGES PERSUASIVE? 2. ARE THESE IMAGES DISCRIMINATORY? 3. WHAT DO THEY SAY ABOUT AMERICAN VALUES? 4. WHO IS THE AUDIENCE? 5. WHAT IS THE TONE? 6. WHAT ARE THEY TRYING TO GET YOU TO DO?
OVER THERE VS MY LITTLE WET HOME WHICH ONE IS A MORE ACCURATE PICTURE OF THE WAR? Over There • Tone: • Audience: • Message: My Little Wet Home • Tone: • Audience: • Message:
AMERICA’S ROLE IN WWI • British on the verge of starving from the U-boat attacks • The Convoy System – All merchant ships escorted by armed destroyers • mines across North Sea to destroy Uboats • Germans could not keep up with losses to U-boats, no longer destroying as much British cargo
AMERICA’S ROLE IN WWI American Expeditionary Force led by General John Pershing (remember him? ) – Doughboys , nickname American soldiers Doughboys Role in WWI • Allied powers were exhausted • American soldiers were “new blood” • Supported offensives by Allied Powers
THE WAR ENDS 11/11/1918 – Cease Fire – War Over The Last Straws Central Powers tired Failed German Offensive Successful Allied Offensives -New American Blood, No New Central Soldiers German naval strategy no longer as effective German navy revolt Population done
THE AFTERMATH • 9 million killed • 4 empires collapsed • France, Belgium and Russia devastated by fighting • England bombed Anthem for Doomed Youth – Wilfred Own What passing-bells for these who die as cattle? Only the monstrous anger of the guns. Only the stuttering rifles' rapid rattle Can patter out their hasty orisons. No mockeries for them from prayers or bells, Nor any voice of mourning save the choirs, — The shrill, demented choirs of wailing shells; And bugles calling for them from sad shires. What candles may be held to speed them all? Not in the hands of boys, but in their eyes Shall shine the holy glimmers of good-byes. The pallor of girls' brows shall be their pall; Their flowers the tenderness of silent maids, And each slow dusk a drawing-down of blinds