AMERICA CLAIMS AN EMPIRE Vocabulary Big Stick Expansionism

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AMERICA CLAIMS AN EMPIRE

AMERICA CLAIMS AN EMPIRE

Vocabulary • • • Big Stick Expansionism Imperialism Open Door policy Panama Canal Philippines

Vocabulary • • • Big Stick Expansionism Imperialism Open Door policy Panama Canal Philippines Platt Amendment Yellow Press Roosevelt Corollary Spanish- American War Teller Amendment Treaty of Portsmouth (1905), • • • Jose Marti Ostend Manifesto William Randolph Hearst U. S. S. Maine Rough Riders San Juan Hill “White Mans Burden” Monroe Doctrine Dollar Diplomacy Puerto Rico Anti-Imperialist League

IMPERIALISM AND AMERICA • Throughout the 19 th century America expanded control of the

IMPERIALISM AND AMERICA • Throughout the 19 th century America expanded control of the continent to the Pacific Ocean • By 1880, many American leaders felt the U. S. should join European nations and establish colonies overseas • Thus began America’s foray into Imperialism – the policy in which stronger nations extend control over weaker nations

WHY IMPERIALISM? • 1) Desire for Military strength – Mahan advised strong navy •

WHY IMPERIALISM? • 1) Desire for Military strength – Mahan advised strong navy • 2) Thirst for new markets – to spur economy & trade • 3) Belief in Cultural Superiority – a belief that Anglo-Saxons were superior

U. S. Imperialism: Arguments for Expansion Expand business interests-US economy boomed. Companies built overseas

U. S. Imperialism: Arguments for Expansion Expand business interests-US economy boomed. Companies built overseas factories. Need new markets to prevent financial panics. Military interests–International competition for colonies would leave America behind. 1890 funding approved for 3 battleships (US becomes 2 ocean navy). International navy needs coaling ports. Social Darwinism- US must expand to survive. Whites are superior race. Must spread superiority Spread Christianity-All nations should be Christian. Bring values to “backward” people American Frontier Closed foreign interests. Expand or explode US pioneer spirit looks towards

United States Foreign Policy 1890 -1914 Just Say No To Empire: The Anti-Imperialist League

United States Foreign Policy 1890 -1914 Just Say No To Empire: The Anti-Imperialist League Background-Most of America were part of the contiguous United States (minus Alaska and Hawaii). The Philippines were a distant tropical island chain with a different culture. Main goal of the Anti-Imperialist League was to fight the Mc. Kinley administration’s expansionist policies. Prominent leaders included Mark Twain and Andrew Carnegie. Anti-Imperialist Objections- Declaration of Independence and the Constitution state it is the right of the people to choose their form of government. Imperialism was against America’s anti-colonial policy. Imperialism would be too costly. Annexation would pull the US politically and militarily into Asia (okay to be pulled economically). 6

THE U. S. ACQUIRES ALASKA • In 1867, Secretary of State William Steward arranged

THE U. S. ACQUIRES ALASKA • In 1867, Secretary of State William Steward arranged for the United States to buy Alaska from the Russians for $7. 2 million • Some thought it was a silly idea and called it “Steward’s Icebox” • Time has shown how smart it was to buy Alaska for 2 cents an acre • Alaska is rich in timber, minerals and oil ska Ala

U. S. TAKES HAWAII • Hawaii had been economically important to Americans for centuries

U. S. TAKES HAWAII • Hawaii had been economically important to Americans for centuries • To avoid import taxes (tariffs), sugar growers pleaded for annexation • The U. S. knew the value of the Islands – they had built a naval base at Pearl Harbor in 1887 • Led by Sanford Dole, American annexed Hawaii in 1898 and it formally became a state in 1959

SECTION 2: THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR • America had long held an interest in

SECTION 2: THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR • America had long held an interest in Cuba • When Cubans unsuccessfully rebelled against Spanish rule in the late 19 th century, American sympathy went out to the Cuban people • After Spain abolished slavery in Cuba in 1886, Americans invested millions in Cuban sugar Cuba is just 90 miles south of Florida

CUBA’S SECOND WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE Marti • Anti-Spain sentiment in Cuba soon erupted into

CUBA’S SECOND WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE Marti • Anti-Spain sentiment in Cuba soon erupted into a second war for independence • Led by poet Jose Marti, Cuba attempted a revolution in 1895 • Marti deliberately destroyed property, including American sugar plants, hoping to provoke American intervention

WAR FEVER ESCALATES • Newspaper publishers William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal) and Joseph

WAR FEVER ESCALATES • Newspaper publishers William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal) and Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) exaggerated Spanish atrocities and brutality in “Headline Wars” • Yellow Journalism Political cartoon: Pulitzer (left) and Hearst escalating and instigating war between the U. S. and Spain

U. S. S MAINE EXPLODES Before After • Early in 1888, President Mc. Kinley

U. S. S MAINE EXPLODES Before After • Early in 1888, President Mc. Kinley ordered the U. S. S. Maine to Cuba in order to bring home American citizens in danger • On February 15, 1898 the ship blew up in the harbor of Havana • More than 260 men were killed

The Maine Explodes Unknown artist , 1898 Notice the men flying dramatically through the

The Maine Explodes Unknown artist , 1898 Notice the men flying dramatically through the air

WAR ERUPTS WITH SPAIN • There was no holding back those that wanted war

WAR ERUPTS WITH SPAIN • There was no holding back those that wanted war with Spain • Newspapers blamed the Spanish for bombing the U. S. S. Maine (recent investigations have shown it was a fire inside the Maine) • “Remember the Maine!” became a rallying cry for U. S. intervention in Cuba

Check for Understanding

Check for Understanding

A CALL FOR INTERVENTION IN CUBA

A CALL FOR INTERVENTION IN CUBA

THE WAR IN THE PHILIPPINES • The Philippines-Admiral Dewey told to attack the Spanish

THE WAR IN THE PHILIPPINES • The Philippines-Admiral Dewey told to attack the Spanish fleet in the event of war. 5/1/1898 Dewey’s surprise attack defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay. 8/13/1898 American troops with Filipino insurgents led by Emilio Aguinaldo capture Manila (America will regret asking Aguinaldo for help)

THE WAR IN THE CARIBBEAN Cuba-Decisive battle at Santiago. 7/1/1898 Rough Riders (supported by

THE WAR IN THE CARIBBEAN Cuba-Decisive battle at Santiago. 7/1/1898 Rough Riders (supported by 2 black regiments) fight at San Juan and Kettle Hills. 7/3/1898 the Spanish, trapped by US naval blockade and US Army, Spain surrendered. Results-Few casualties (400 to bullets; 5, 000 to malaria, typhoid fever, dysentery). War only lasted 113 days. America gained respect and prestige. Closed the North-South divide. US gained an empire that they couldn’t defend 18 (Philippines in WWII).

U. S. WINS; SIGNS TREATY OF PARIS • The U. S. and Spain signed

U. S. WINS; SIGNS TREATY OF PARIS • The U. S. and Spain signed an armistice on August 12, 1898, ending what Secretary of State John Hay called “a splendid little war” • The war lasted only 16 weeks • Cuba was now independent • U. S. receives Guam, Puerto Rico, and “bought” the Philippines for $20 million Treaty of Paris, 1898

SECTION 3: ACQUIRING NEW LANDS Puerto Rico-Ceded to the US as payment for war

SECTION 3: ACQUIRING NEW LANDS Puerto Rico-Ceded to the US as payment for war costs. Foraker Act (1900) granted Puerto Rico limited government. American citizenship granted (1917). Still a US possession (neither a state nor a territory). Cuba-Teller Amendment (1898) promised Cuban independence. However US didn’t want Cuba taken over by Germany or other imperial power. Platt Amendment (1901) US could intervene to preserve Cuban independence. US kept land for a naval base (Guantanamo Bay) Cuba had become a “protectorate” of the U. S. 20

United States Foreign Policy 1890 -1914 What to do with the Philippines- • Give

United States Foreign Policy 1890 -1914 What to do with the Philippines- • Give the islands back to Spain (misrule). • Leave the islands and not give them any help (irresponsible and Germany or Japan would seize them resulting in another war). • US annexation. Mc. Kinley opted for annexation (US Senate approved the treaty by one vote) Bitterness and Rebellion-Filipinos wanted independence. 2/4/1899 Emilio Aguinaldo led insurrection against the US. US responded by sending 126, 000 troops. 21

FILIPINOS REBEL • Rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo vowed to fight for freedom and in

FILIPINOS REBEL • Rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo vowed to fight for freedom and in 1899 he led a rebellion U. S. troops fire on rebels • Results-Fighting lasts until 1902. 4, 234 Americans killed. 600, 000 Filipinos killed. The 3 -year war claimed and $400, 000 (20 x the price the U. S. paid for the land). Philippines not granted independence until July 4, 1946.

Check for Understanding

Check for Understanding

United States Foreign Policy 18901914 America in Asia: China and the Open Door Policy-China

United States Foreign Policy 18901914 America in Asia: China and the Open Door Policy-China is a weak country in the 1890 s. European powers had basically split China into spheres of influence. (1899) Secretary of State John Hay urged European leaders respect Chinese rights and fair competition (this is the Open Door). These policies reflected American beliefs in the importance of exports, the right of America to intervene to keep foreign markets open, and the belief that America’s survival depended on access to foreign markets Results-Gave all nations equal trading access in China. Guaranteed that China would not be taken over by a foreign power. 25

SECTION 4: AMERICA AS A WORLD POWER The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded annually

SECTION 4: AMERICA AS A WORLD POWER The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded annually • Two events signaled America’s continued climb toward being the #1 world power • 1) Roosevelt negotiated a settlement between Russia and Japan who had been at War – his successful efforts in negotiating the Treaty of Portsmouth won Roosevelt the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize • 2) Construction of Panama Canal

THE PANAMA CANAL • By the early 20 th century, many Americans understood the

THE PANAMA CANAL • By the early 20 th century, many Americans understood the advantages of a canal through Panama • It would greatly reduce travel times for commercial and military ships by providing a short cut between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans “The shortcut”

BUILDING THE PANAMA CANAL 1904 -1914 Cost- $380 million Workers – Over 40, 000

BUILDING THE PANAMA CANAL 1904 -1914 Cost- $380 million Workers – Over 40, 000 (5, 600 died) Time – Construction took 10 years • The French had already unsuccessfully attempted to build a canal through Panama • America first had to help Panama win their independence from Colombia – which it did • Construction of the Canal stands as one of the greatest engineering feats of all-time

This view, provided by NASA, shows the thin blue line (canal) cutting across the

This view, provided by NASA, shows the thin blue line (canal) cutting across the middle of Panama

Almost 1, 000 ships have passed through the canal, which became sole property of

Almost 1, 000 ships have passed through the canal, which became sole property of Panama in the year 2000

Theodore Roosevelt’s Foreign Policy: Carry a Big Stick Roosevelt Corollary-Preventative intervention. US would intervene

Theodore Roosevelt’s Foreign Policy: Carry a Big Stick Roosevelt Corollary-Preventative intervention. US would intervene in Latin America to keep European powers out of the Western Hemisphere. Corollary Results-Used to justify all interventions. US Marines will be sent multiple times to Latin American countries views this as American oppression. Roosevelt in Action-Roosevelt was not afraid to flex American muscle. Roosevelt acted as mediator in Russo. Japanese War (won Nobel Peace Prize in 1906). Sent the US Navy to protect the Panamanian revolt (1903). (1907) ordered the Great White Fleet on highly visible voyage around the world (show off American naval power). 31

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Check for Understanding

William H. Taft’s Foreign Policy: Dollar Diplomacy Background-Federal government encouraged Wall Street bankers and

William H. Taft’s Foreign Policy: Dollar Diplomacy Background-Federal government encouraged Wall Street bankers and other major US corporations to invest in foreign countries that were of a strategic concern to the US. The dollar would replace Roosevelt’s big stick. Dollar Diplomacy in the Caribbean-Main area of US strategic importance. US pumped money into this area to keep other countries out and to uphold the Monroe Doctrine. Policy failed when civil distress broke out in Cuba, Honduras, and the Dominican Republic. President Taft had to send in the Marines to protect American investments. 33

Woodrow Wilson’s Foreign Policy: Moral Diplomacy Background-Wilson hated Roosevelt’s big stick and Taft’s dollar

Woodrow Wilson’s Foreign Policy: Moral Diplomacy Background-Wilson hated Roosevelt’s big stick and Taft’s dollar diplomacy. Wilson believed that the US would be the world’s conscience. Goal of American foreign policy would be to spread democracy and promote peace. Wilson in Action-Sometimes spreading democracy required military action. Wilson sent the Marines to Haiti (1914 -1933) and the Dominican Republic (1916 -1924). (1916) Jones Act granted the Philippines territorial status and promised independence America’s Mexican Adventure- 34 American companies invested billions of dollars in Mexican oil, railroads, and mines. (1913) Mexican people rebelled. (1914) Wilson sent the Navy to capture the port of Vera Cruz. (1916) Wilson ordered General Pershing to break up Pancho Villa’s group. (1917) US withdrew because threat of war with Germany increased.