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AMCI HUMAN EMBRYOLOGY • • Introduction to embryology History of embryology Need for study Sub-divisions of embryology
AMCI INTRODUCTION: • Human development is one of the most exciting topics to study not only as a medical student, but also for our fundamental understanding of the human body. Of all health issues in Medicine, fertility and reproduction is a topic that will affect everyone. (https: //embryology. med. unsw. edu. au/embryology/index. php/Foundations_Lecture__Introducti on_to_Human_Development). • Study of the molecular, cellular and structural factors contributing to the formation of a human being from a single celled zygote to a fully formed baby in nine months (38 weeks). • Total period of development is of 38 weeks. The development is divided into two stages, i. e. embryonic and fetal. Embryonic stage covers first two months (8 weeks) while the fetal period of development runs from 3 rd month(9 th week) to birth(38 th week). Embryonic period is important: development of organs and different systems of the body. (Kadasne).
AMCI HISTORY • Embryology has been under investigation since time immemorial Ancient views • • Ancient Egypt (3000 BC), Upanishads (1416 BC), Greek scholars (Hippocrates, Aristotle and Galen), Talmud (Samuel-el-Yehudi 02 AD), Middle ages • Quran (07 AD), • Constantinus Africanus of Salerno (1020 -1087 AD),
AMCI Renaissance period • Leonardo da Vinci (1452 -1519) • Fabricius of Aquapendente Modern developmemts • William Harvey, Marcello Malphigi, • Karl Ernst von Baer- described the oocyte in the ovarian follicle of a dog in 1827, approximately 150 years after the discovery of sperms. He also observed cleaving zygotes in the uterine tube and blastocysts in the uterus. He contributed new knowledge about the origin of tissues and organs from the layers described earlier by Malpighi and Pander. Von Baer formulated two important embryologic concepts: corresponding stages of embryonic development and that general characteristics precede specific ones. His significant and farreaching contributions resulted in his being regarded as the Father of Modern Embryology. (The developing human - Moore and Persaud).
AMCI NEED FOR STUDY = IMPORTANCE OF EMBRYOLOGY- • Embryology helps us understand the normal relationships of adult body structure and the cause of congenital anomalies. • Study of embryology provides a logical basis for understanding the overall organization of the human body. For example, the organization of the pharyngeal arches and their contributions to the head and neck in adults. ( https: //onlinelibrary. wiley. com/doi/full/10. 1002/ar. 10075) • The essence of teratology (the study of birth defects) is to understand causes of abnormal development and how the course of development in such cases diverges from the normal. Another important function of embryology is to provide a logical basis for understanding the overall organization of the human body. (https: //www. google. am/search? q=%27 need+for+study+of+embryology%27&rlz=1 C 1 C HBD_en. IN 753&oq=%27 need+for+study+of+embryology%27&aqs=chrome. . 69 i 5 7. 14736 j 0 j 9&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8)
AMCI • Understanding embryology is essential for creating health care strategies; Prenatal diagnosis and surgical treatments, Therapeutic procedures for infertility, Mechanisms to prevent birth defects. SUB- DIVISIONS / ASSOCIATED ASPECTS OF EMBRYOLOGY Developmental anatomy- • Processes involved from fertilization to structural & functional maturity of organs/viscera/systems of human body. Teratology- (Gr. teratos, monster) • Is the division of embryology and pathology that deals with abnormal development (birth defects). This branch of embryology is concerned with various genetic and/or environmental factors that disturb normal development and produce birth defects.
AMCI Clinical embryology- • That knowledge of embryology which is useful in the understanding and management of pregnancy and commonly encountered problems during pregnancy and congenital anomalies. Experimental embryology- • Deals with the laboratory methods employed for normal development to properly understand histogenesis and ororganogenesis or to manipulate the developmental process to assess the safety of environmental alterations, drugs, chemicals etc. The experiment could be invivo or invitro. The level of manipulation could be genetic or enzymatic. The manipulation could be electrical/ magnetic/ electromagnetic, environment in and around the embryo/ foetus and use of chemicals, & drugs etc. From Moore and Persaud- Some descriptive terms used in embryology for position and directions.
AMCI • Trophoblast: The layer of tissue that forms the wall of the blastocyst in the early stages of embryonic development. It functions in implanting the blastocyst in the uterine wall and in supplying nutrients to the embryo. • Xenotransplantation: A transplant from one species to another. Zygote: the single-celled fertilised egg.
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