Ambulatory Care Pharmacy Debbie Kwan BSc Phm MSc

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Ambulatory Care Pharmacy Debbie Kwan, BSc. Phm. , MSc. Toronto Western Hospital -University Health

Ambulatory Care Pharmacy Debbie Kwan, BSc. Phm. , MSc. Toronto Western Hospital -University Health Network Faculty of Pharmacy, Nov. 22, 2002

Objectives: 1. Describe ambulatory care practice 2. Describe the impact of ambulatory care practices

Objectives: 1. Describe ambulatory care practice 2. Describe the impact of ambulatory care practices 3. Provide examples of activities provided through ambulatory care services 4. Identify future opportunities and challenges

What is Ambulatory Care? “all health-related services for patients who walk to seek their

What is Ambulatory Care? “all health-related services for patients who walk to seek their care” Seaton, Ambulatory Care, PSAP Examples: Fclinics - general (primary care); specialty (day surgery, chemotherapy) FER Fprivate offices Fcommunity pharmacies

Why ambulatory care? • Shift from acute ambulatory care: – decreasing LOS – increased

Why ambulatory care? • Shift from acute ambulatory care: – decreasing LOS – increased outpatient procedures – goal: decrease health care costs • Continuity of care: – bridging the gaps – secondary prevention clinics • e. g SPACE

What does the Pharmacy profession think? ASHP Survey 1999: – “greatest opportunity for pharmacists

What does the Pharmacy profession think? ASHP Survey 1999: – “greatest opportunity for pharmacists in the future lie in primary and ambulatory care” – more emphasis on preventive care – curricula change to support this

Documented value of ambulatory Pharmacy services • increase physician availability • increase # patient

Documented value of ambulatory Pharmacy services • increase physician availability • increase # patient visits • decrease hospitalization rates: Asthma clinic, Pauley et al, 1995 • drug cost savings: Jones et al, 1991 • improve quality of care: – more thorough work-up – address adherence issues: Ulcers: Lee et al, 1999 – better treatment outcomes: • Anticoagulant control, Chiquette et al, 1998 • Hypertension, Erickson et al, 1997 • Diabetes, Coast-Senior et al, 1998 – fewer adverse drug reactions: Miller et al, 1996

Ambulatory Care Primary Care • “first contact” • continuity of care • comprehensive care

Ambulatory Care Primary Care • “first contact” • continuity of care • comprehensive care • individualized care • health promotion, disease prevention, early detection Specialty Care • Particular organ system or disease type • health promotion and prevention • specialized training • one point in time

Ambulatory Care services at TWH Community & Population Health Living Centre: Family Health Centre

Ambulatory Care services at TWH Community & Population Health Living Centre: Family Health Centre • Diabetes Education Centre • Community Arthritis Management Program • Chronic Pain Program • Seniors Wellness Clinic Mental Health Women’s Health Artists Health Centre

Healthy Living Centre Goals: 1. Identify health needs and issues 2. Effective use of

Healthy Living Centre Goals: 1. Identify health needs and issues 2. Effective use of resources 3. Improve access, integration and coordination of care 4. Increase community knowledge and responsibility for health status 5. Promote improvement in health systems Improve health status of target populations

Target Population profile Eglinton Ave. Keele St. ~ 40, 000 Yonge St. Lake Ontario

Target Population profile Eglinton Ave. Keele St. ~ 40, 000 Yonge St. Lake Ontario • Seniors (65+) - 11. 7% (1/3 live alone) • Ethnic diversity - 88% (not British or Cdn) vs. 82% for Toronto: – Portuguese, Chinese, Italian, Jewish, Polish, Vietnamese, East Indian, Filipino, Jamaican • Literacy/Education - lower rates than rest of Toronto

Diabetes, Pain, OA, Seniors Clinics: Common elements • Referral: family MD, patient, HCP •

Diabetes, Pain, OA, Seniors Clinics: Common elements • Referral: family MD, patient, HCP • Health promotion and prevention • Promote independence and increase knowledge with self-care of health conditions • Not a cure • • Multidisciplinary team Group education Individual consultation Interpreters

Diabetes, Pain, OA, Seniors Clinics: Common elements Referral Screening/initial assessment Goal setting Group Education

Diabetes, Pain, OA, Seniors Clinics: Common elements Referral Screening/initial assessment Goal setting Group Education and/or Follow-up Individual counselling *

Family Health Centre - TWH • • Physicians medical residents nurse practitioner RN, RPN

Family Health Centre - TWH • • Physicians medical residents nurse practitioner RN, RPN social worker pharmacists chiropodist • Support staff: – receptionists – medical records – administrative staff

Family Health Centre Pharmacist’s activities: • Drug information • Consultation • Teaching

Family Health Centre Pharmacist’s activities: • Drug information • Consultation • Teaching

Pharmacist: Roles & Responsibilities • Screening and early detection – dyslipidemia – hypertension –

Pharmacist: Roles & Responsibilities • Screening and early detection – dyslipidemia – hypertension – diabetes – osteoporosis • Health promotion and disease prevention – immunization – smoking cessation – general wellness

Pharmacist: Roles & Responsibilities • Medication history and assessment – disease specific – efficacy,

Pharmacist: Roles & Responsibilities • Medication history and assessment – disease specific – efficacy, toxicity, adherence – medication management – herbal products • Pharmacotherapeutic interventions – identification/prevention of drug-related problems – establishing goals and outcomes – initiate – modify Pharmacy Care plan – discontinue – monitor drug therapy

Implementation of PCP ü Documentation ü Communication – Who: • • physician Health care

Implementation of PCP ü Documentation ü Communication – Who: • • physician Health care team community pharmacy community agencies (e. g. VON) – How: • chart • team rounds • telephone

Telephone follow-ups reduce seniors' drug-related problems Patients aided by pharmacist calls By Lynn Haley

Telephone follow-ups reduce seniors' drug-related problems Patients aided by pharmacist calls By Lynn Haley VANCOUVER – Telephone followup can greatly reduce drugrelated problems (DRPs) in geriatric patients, researchers at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute reported at the recent 17 th World Congress of the International Association of Gerontology. The Medical Post, VOLUME 37, NO. 28, August 21, 2001 Kwan, Alibhai, Papastavros, Armesto, Toronto Rehab Institute

Additional Drug-related problems identified during Telephone follow-up: 10% 4% 27% 17% *20% 22% *

Additional Drug-related problems identified during Telephone follow-up: 10% 4% 27% 17% *20% 22% * new category that emerged during follow-up

 • 101 interventions were carried out • 66% of interventions were provided by

• 101 interventions were carried out • 66% of interventions were provided by the pharmacist over the telephone Intervention type % Total 1. Medication education 41. 6% 2. Dosing regimen modification (e. g. timing, use of compliance aids) 20. 0% 3. Therapeutic recommendation (resulting in new prescription) 12. 9% 4. Consult Geriatrician 11. 8% 5. Refer to community resources (e. g. community pharmacy, VON) 8. 0% 6. Earlier clinic follow-up visit 4. 9%

Initiating ambulatory care practices The Pharmaceutical Care Pilot Project: Structure and Function of Drug-Related

Initiating ambulatory care practices The Pharmaceutical Care Pilot Project: Structure and Function of Drug-Related Problems in the Community Dwelling Elderly Bowles S, Perrier D. Sunnybrook Health Science Centre and Faculty of Pharmacy; Kwan D, Study Co-ordinator Ontario Drug Benefit Program Grant, $18, 000 (1993 – 1995) u ambulatory geriatric rehab program - frail elderly u 260 DRPs (n=39) – additional drug required (30%) – possible adverse drug reaction (25%) – alternative agent more appropriate (20%)

Initiating ambulatory care practices Multidisciplinary falls clinic: • Medications contribute to falls • Role

Initiating ambulatory care practices Multidisciplinary falls clinic: • Medications contribute to falls • Role of the pharmacist: – – interventions will be patient specific weighing risk vs. benefit preventive measures (e. g. osteoporosis) education of the patient informed choices

Initiating ambulatory care practices Community Mental Health and Addiction Program (TWH) • • mental

Initiating ambulatory care practices Community Mental Health and Addiction Program (TWH) • • mental health crisis team emergency psychiatry assessment unit Portuguese mental health and addiction unit men and women’s withdrawal programs Opportunities: – – – provision of drug information (staff, clients) medication identification linking with community pharmacies supportive role vs. direct patient care student experience

Challenges 1. Team dynamics: – overlapping scopes of practice (health teaching) – clarify roles

Challenges 1. Team dynamics: – overlapping scopes of practice (health teaching) – clarify roles and responsibilities – key messages 2. Marketing your services: – education of patients and health care providers, re: scope of practice – when to refer

Challenges 3. Delivering patient education – – – effectiveness and impact adult vs. student

Challenges 3. Delivering patient education – – – effectiveness and impact adult vs. student education group education - interactive vs. didactic multi-cultural aspects varying levels of education handouts 4. Changing the public’s perception – creating a demand for cognitive services

ASHP Standards Minimum standards for pharmaceutical care services in ambulatory care: 1. 2. 3.

ASHP Standards Minimum standards for pharmaceutical care services in ambulatory care: 1. 2. 3. 4. Leadership and Practice management Medication therapy and pharmaceutical care Drug distribution and control Facilities, equipment and other resources www. ashp. org Other resources: CSHP, ACCP – specialty practice groups

Future Directions • Reimbursement • Credentialing (value added) – residency – Pharm. D. –

Future Directions • Reimbursement • Credentialing (value added) – residency – Pharm. D. – fellowship – specialty certification

Future directions • Measuring quality of care – identifying representative markers of care (e.

Future directions • Measuring quality of care – identifying representative markers of care (e. g. BP, lipid levels) • Measuring patient satisfaction – timeliness, efficiency, communication • Impact on long term outcomes – e. g. diabetes education- > control BS -> impact on complications?

Ambulatory Care Pharmacy Ø Tremendous opportunity for growth Ø Multidisciplinary team resources available Ø

Ambulatory Care Pharmacy Ø Tremendous opportunity for growth Ø Multidisciplinary team resources available Ø Dedicated time for direct patient care and follow-up Ø Taking the lead in care - primary liaison Ø Opportunity to try new ideas!