ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM Adsorption Dryers Contents ALMi

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ALM Adsorption Dryers

ALM Adsorption Dryers

ALM Adsorption Dryers Contents ALMi. G adsorption dryers General function of adsorption dryer Overview

ALM Adsorption Dryers Contents ALMi. G adsorption dryers General function of adsorption dryer Overview of ALM adsorption dryers ALM-CCD ALM-WD Special models Adsorption dryer design ALM-HOC 2

ALM Adsorption Dryers Classification of moisture reg. DIN ISO 8573 -1: 2010 Moisture classes

ALM Adsorption Dryers Classification of moisture reg. DIN ISO 8573 -1: 2010 Moisture classes acc. to DIN ISO 8573 -1: 2010 Class Pressure dew point 0 as specified by operator 1 ≤ -70 °C 2 ≤ -40 ℃ 3 ≤ -20 °C 4 ≤ +3 ℃ 5 ≤ +7 °C 6 ≤ +10 ℃ Area for adsorption drying 3

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALMi. G drying procedures Condensation Adsorption Refrigeration dryer Adsorption dryer (Pressure

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALMi. G drying procedures Condensation Adsorption Refrigeration dryer Adsorption dryer (Pressure Dew Point ≥ +3°C) (PDP < 3°C to -70°C) 4

ALM Adsorption Dryers If cooling to +3°C (corresponding to a residual moisture level of

ALM Adsorption Dryers If cooling to +3°C (corresponding to a residual moisture level of 5. 95 g/m 3) is not sufficient, e. g. Øpipelines above ground level (cold in winter) Øoutdoor receivers / consumers Øthe process requires drier air Øetc. the adsorption dryer drying system must be used. 5

ALM Adsorption Dryers Adsorption drying The adsorption principle: The water vapour contained in the

ALM Adsorption Dryers Adsorption drying The adsorption principle: The water vapour contained in the compressed air is bound to the surface of a granulate-shaped drying agent (adsorbate) by the forces of adhesion. Depending on the drying agent used, pressure dew points of down to -70°C can be attained. Note: Unlike the refrigeration drying process, the compressed air is not cooled. The adsorption process itself requires no energy; energy only has to be used to regenerate the adsorbate, i. e. to remove the moisture collected. Since the regeneration process requires a certain amount of time, an adsorption dryer always consists of two receivers, one of which is always operating while the other is regenerating or 'drying'. 6

ALM Adsorption Dryers General function of adsorption dryer An adsorption dryer consists of 2

ALM Adsorption Dryers General function of adsorption dryer An adsorption dryer consists of 2 receivers: One receiver is used to dry the compressed air (1). 1 2 The drying agent is regenerated in the other receiver, i. e. moisture is now expelled (2). The system switches between the two depending on loading or at defined intervals. Reduction in moisture to ISO class 1 -3, Pressure dew point: ≥ -70°C/ 20°C 2 possible forms of regeneration: cold regeneration warm regeneration 7

ALM Adsorption Dryers Adsorption Drying in general An adsorption dryer consists of 2 receivers:

ALM Adsorption Dryers Adsorption Drying in general An adsorption dryer consists of 2 receivers: One receiver is used to dry the compressed air (1). 1 2 Second receiver is used for the regeneration of desiccant, which means reduction of moisture (2). There will be switched between the receiver regarding time intervals or charge load. . 2 possibilities of regeneration: Humidity reduced to ISO class 1 -3, DTP: ≥ -70°C/ -20°C cold regeneration warm regeneration 8

ALM Adsorption Dryers Types of adsorption drying Warm regeneration Regeneration with supply of heat

ALM Adsorption Dryers Types of adsorption drying Warm regeneration Regeneration with supply of heat Cold regeneration Regeneration with a partial flow of dry compressed air Caution 10 – 20 % of the valuable compressed air is used as purge / regenerating air. Internal warm regeneration With compressor heat (HOC) Regeneration with a partial flow of dry compressed air and internal, electric heating Regeneration through use of compressor heat, no additional energy supply • Collection of moisture on outer surface only • Collection of moisture on the internal and external surface • Short adsorption time of 4 – 10 min • Long adsorption time of 4 – 10 h 9

ALM Adsorption Dryers Overview of ALM adsorption dryers ALM-CCD Cold regeneration - compact series

ALM Adsorption Dryers Overview of ALM adsorption dryers ALM-CCD Cold regeneration - compact series ALM-CD Cold regeneration ALM-WD Warm regeneration ALM-HOC Heat of Compression 10

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM-CCD (Compact Cold Desiccant) Key data: Cold-regenerated adsorption dryer Volume flow:

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM-CCD (Compact Cold Desiccant) Key data: Cold-regenerated adsorption dryer Volume flow: 9 – 45 m³/h Pressure dew point: -40°C; -70°C Operating pressure: 3 – 10 bar Ambient temperature: 5 – 50°C Advantages: • Compact and space-saving / wall mounting possible • Variable pressure dew point, can be set using microswitch Ø 10 min. cycle for -40°C Ø 4 min. cycle for -70℃ • Low maintenance costs • Simple installation / operation • Constant pressure dew point 11

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM-CD (Cold Desiccant) Key data: Cold-regenerated adsorption dryer Volume flow: Pressure

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM-CD (Cold Desiccant) Key data: Cold-regenerated adsorption dryer Volume flow: Pressure dew point: Operating pressure: Ambient temperature: 100 – 9400 m³/h -20°C; -40°C; 70°C 4 – 10 bar (higher pressures on request) 5 – 50℃ Advantages: • Constant low pressure dew point • Low investment, low maintenance costs • Simple installation / operation • EMS Energy Management System (optional) • Virtually maintenance-free process valves 12

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM- cold regeneration in detail 1 Phase 2 Phase Compressed air

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM- cold regeneration in detail 1 Phase 2 Phase Compressed air outlet Drying at operating pressure Pressure increase Regeneration outlet Compressed air inlet The left-hand receiver adsorbs the compressed air while the right-hand one is busy with regeneration. Compressed air inlet Once the adsorbent in the left-hand receiver is saturated and regeneration is taking place in the right-hand receiver, they change over. The pressure in the right-hand receiver is first balanced using system compressed air. The adsorbent is protected from major changes in pressure Ø The adsorbent life is extended

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM- cold regeneration in detail 3 Phase 4 Phase Compressed air

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM- cold regeneration in detail 3 Phase 4 Phase Compressed air outlet Drying at operating pressure Compressed air outlet Buildup of pressure Drying at operating pressure Regeneration outlet Compressed air inlet As soon as the right-hand receiver has built up pressure, they change over and the right-hand one starts adsorbing. Regeneration takes place in the left-hand receiver. Compressed air inlet Once the adsorbent in the right-hand receiver is now saturated and regeneration is taking place in the lefthand receiver, they change back again. The pressure in the left-hand receiver is then balanced using system compressed air. 14

ALM Adsorption Dryers Adsorption dryer design Vnom: Nominal volume flow at dryer inlet. To

ALM Adsorption Dryers Adsorption dryer design Vnom: Nominal volume flow at dryer inlet. To get the volume flow of dried compressed air, please subtract 15% from that calculation because of regeneration air. The detailed design will be done project-wise. 15

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM-WD (warm desiccant) Key data: Warm-regenerated adsorption dryer Volume flow: 245

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM-WD (warm desiccant) Key data: Warm-regenerated adsorption dryer Volume flow: 245 – 4280 m³/h Pressure dew point: -40°C Operating pressure: 4 – 16 bar Ambient temperature: 5 – 50°C Purge air / cooling air share just 2. 5% Regeneration by heating elements inside the receivers. 16

ALM Adsorption Dryers Advantages: • Ideal positioning of heating elements in drying bed Ø

ALM Adsorption Dryers Advantages: • Ideal positioning of heating elements in drying bed Ø Ø Direct heat transfer to the adsorbent Optimum use of regenerative energy Ideal distr ib tion of u heat thanks to optim u m positionin g of heatin g elements • No fan / no external blower Ø No contact with the ambient air and therefore no ingress of liquid molecules / particles / etc. Ø Longer drying agent life Ø No additional noise from fans / blowers • Simple installation/operation • Low maintenance costs • EMS Energy Management System (optional) 17

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM- warm regeneration in detail Heating & regeneration 3 hours max.

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM- warm regeneration in detail Heating & regeneration 3 hours max. Drying 4, 5 hours Cooling 1, 25 hours Drying • As soon as the moisture is removed from the dry • The compressed air flows through the right-hand granulate, the heating elements are switched off receiver, the adsorption agent dries the compressed • The purge air from the right-hand receiver is used to air cool the granulate • Desorption through internal heating takes place in the left-hand receiver • A small partial flow of the air dried in the right-hand receiver is pressure-relieved and used to dry the moist granulate in the left-hand receiver. • The moist air is blown outside via a silencer 18

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM- warm regeneration in detail Stand-by and pressure balancing Drying •

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM- warm regeneration in detail Stand-by and pressure balancing Drying • The valve on the purge air output is closed, pressure in the left-hand receiver is balanced until operating pressure is reached in the two receivers • The compressed air in the right-hand receiver continues to be dried Drying • Once operating pressure has been reached in the lefthand receiver, compressed air is dried in both receivers in parallel for a short time 19

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM- warm regeneration in detail Drying Expansion • The valve on

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM- warm regeneration in detail Drying Expansion • The valve on the purge air outlet in the right-hand receiver is opened and operating pressure reduced • Dying takes place in the left-hand receiver Drying Heating & regeneration • 1 complete adsorption and desorption process is now complete. • The next function process starts but the receiver functionalities are now reversed 20

ALM Adsorption Dryers Adsorption dryer design To get the volume flow of dried compressed

ALM Adsorption Dryers Adsorption dryer design To get the volume flow of dried compressed air, please subtract 2, 5% from that calculation because of regeneration air. The detailed design will be done project-wise. 21

ALM Adsorption Dryers Take care when designing adsorption dryers: Compressor Refrigeration dryer 10 m

ALM Adsorption Dryers Take care when designing adsorption dryers: Compressor Refrigeration dryer 10 m 3/min of dry compressed air is fed into the pipework system. Adsorption dryer warmregeneration 10 m 3/min 9. 75 m 3/min Adsorption dryer coldregeneration 10 m 3/min 8. 5 m 3/min Close to 9. 75 m 3/min of dry compressed air is fed into the pipework system. 10 -20% compressed air loss through cold regeneration Only around 8. 5 m 3/h of dry compressed air is fed into the pipework system. 22

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM-HOC (heat of compression) In our oil-free compression systems • oil-free

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM-HOC (heat of compression) In our oil-free compression systems • oil-free DUPLEXX screw compressor or • DYNAMIC turbo series the compressed air can be dried using heat from the compressor. Is the compression heat large enough, drying can be done without an additional supply of energy. 23

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM-HOC (heat of compression) Key data: Pressure dew point: down to

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALM-HOC (heat of compression) Key data: Pressure dew point: down to -40°C Volume flow: 800 – 6000 m³/h Operating pressure: 5 – 10 bar Adsorption temperature: 35°C Hot air inlet temp. : max. 230°C Cooling water temperature: max. 32℃ Ambient temperature: 5 – 40℃ Compression temperature: 140 – 180°C Requirements for use: ØOil-free compression ØCompressor with integrated aftercooler ØHot air connection ØCold air connection 24

ALM Adsorption Dryers Advantages: • Dry compressed air is produced immediately after starting up

ALM Adsorption Dryers Advantages: • Dry compressed air is produced immediately after starting up / starting back up • Low pressure losses of just 0. 2 to 0. 3 bar under design conditions • Partial load of up to 20% of capacity with guaranteed pressure dew point • Intermittent compressor operation is possible at guaranteed pressure dew point • Low maintenance costs ØReplacing the adsorption agent costs around 15 -20% of the system price ØThe drying agent can be replaced a bit at a time ØOnly standard DIN/ISO components commonly found on the market are used • Systems can be increased to any size (scale-up) • Large volume of adsorption agent, therefore: Ø Ø one regeneration cycle in 2 to 4 hours Long adsorption agent life (up to 10 years) • The high-temperature zinc coating on the pipes and separator offers max. corrosion protection, especially for the inner areas at particular risk • High reliability by: - Compact cooler design - Safe condensate drain - Protected cables and pipes 25

ALM Adsorption Dryers Function Desorption phase The hot partial flow of compressed air coming

ALM Adsorption Dryers Function Desorption phase The hot partial flow of compressed air coming from the compressor flows over the hot air inlet K 1 and the 4/2 -way tap cock HK 2 (connection 3/2) into the desorbing adsorption receiver B 2. The moisture absorbed by the drying agent evaporates and passes to the cooler along with the partial flow of desorption air via the 4/2 -way tap cock HK 1 (connection 2/1) and fitting K 3. Here the compressed air is cooled to the adsorption inlet temperature required. The condensate collected during cooling is discharged from the compressed air system via the downstream separator. The cooled partial flow of desorption air then flows behind the butterfly valve KS 1 into the partial flow of cold air coming from the compressor. The partial air flow required for regeneration can be adjusted by hand using the butterfly valve KS 1. The volume flow now again corresponds to the compressor's delivery volume. The entire compressed air flow is fed via HK 1 (connection 3/4) into the adsorption receiver B 1 intended for adsorption. The flows pass from the bottom up through the drying agent bed during adsorption. During this passage, the drying agent absorbs the moisture. The dry compressed air passes to the points of consumption via the 4/2 -way tap cock HK 2 (connection 4/1) and system outlet. The desorption process decreases the amount of moisture in the drying agent. As the moisture level falls, the outlet temperature of the desorption air flow increases. Desorption is complete when the temperature of the desorption air flow on the adsorber outlet side (here B 2) has reached the temperature required by the procedure. 26

ALM Adsorption Dryers Function Cooling phase In order to prevent peaks in temperature and

ALM Adsorption Dryers Function Cooling phase In order to prevent peaks in temperature and dew point after changing over, the heat stored in the drying agent is cooled by the partial flow of cold compressed air after the desorption phase. The cold partial flow of compressed air coming from the compressor passes to the heated adsorption bed via the valve K 4 and the 4/2 -way tap cock HK 1 (connection 1/2). During this flow, the cold partial flow of compressed air absorbs the heat stored in the drying agent. The partial flow of compressed air heated by the drying agent flows to the cooler where it is cooled down to the adsorption temperature. The cooled partial flow of cooling air then flows behind the butterfly valve KS 1 into the partial flow of cold air coming from the compressor. The volume flow now again corresponds to the compressor's delivery volume. The entire compressed air flow is fed via the 4/2 -way tap cock HK 1 (connection 3/4) into the adsorption receiver B 1 intended for adsorption. The flows pass from the bottom up through the drying agent bed during adsorption. During this passage, the drying agent absorbs the moisture. The dry compressed air passes to the points of consumption via the 4/2 -way tap cock HK 2 (connection 4/1) and system outlet. 27

ALM Adsorption Dryers Function Stand-by If the adsorption phase is being monitored and terminated

ALM Adsorption Dryers Function Stand-by If the adsorption phase is being monitored and terminated by a control system dependent on dew point (optional), the length of the standby phase depends on the loading state of the adsorption receiver (here B 1). The process of changing over is only initiated once the drying agent breakthrough capacity (increase in pressure dew point) is reached. If the system is being operated in "time-dependent changeover" mode, the process of changing over is initiated after the set cycle time. Process of changing over Once the standby phase is complete, adsorption on the regenerated receiver (here B 2) is moved into the corresponding position by reversing the 4/2 -way tap cocks HK 1 and HK 2. The receiver saturated with moisture B 1 is now in the desorption phase, while the adsorption receiver B 2 starts to dry the compressed air. 28

ALM Adsorption Dryers HOC vs. rotary dryer Heat of compression (HOC) Rotary dryer -

ALM Adsorption Dryers HOC vs. rotary dryer Heat of compression (HOC) Rotary dryer - Dry compressed air is produced immediately after starting up and starting back up - Dry compressed air is only produced after a stabilisation period - Pressure losses of 0. 2 to 0. 3 bar under design conditions - Pressure losses of between 0. 2 and 0. 6 bar - Partial load of up to 20% of capacity at guaranteed pressure dew point -Poorly suited to partial load operation (Pressure dew point increases) - Intermittent compressor operation at guaranteed pressure dew point -Intermittent operation causes fluctuations in pressure dew point - Stable pressure dew points of down to -40°C -Pressure dew points of down to -20°C under normal operating conditions. PDP is not stable for changing volume flows. 29

ALM Adsorption Dryers HOC vs. rotary dryer Heat of compression (HOC) - Low maintenance

ALM Adsorption Dryers HOC vs. rotary dryer Heat of compression (HOC) - Low maintenance costs: Rotary dryer - High maintenance costs: • Changing the adsorption agent costs around 15 -20% of the system price • Changing the adsorption agent costs around 50% of the system price • The drying agent can be replaced at bit at a time • The drum can only be replaced in one piece • Only standard DIN/ISO components commonly found on the market are used • Use of manufacturer-specific components - Large volume of adsorption agent, therefore: - Low volume of adsorption agent, therefore: • One regeneration cycle in 2 to 4 hours • Up to six regeneration cycles per hour • Long adsorption agent life iii(up to 10 years) • Short adsorption drum life (4 -5 years) - Systems can be increased to any size (scale-up) - Scale-up not possible 3

ALM Adsorption Dryers Design HOC-Dryer must be designed individually for each application. Following information

ALM Adsorption Dryers Design HOC-Dryer must be designed individually for each application. Following information and parameters are necessary: - Number of compression stages Existance of a cold or a hot air outlet Size of volume flow Operating pressure and temperature of the compressed air before last stage (after intermediate cooler) Outlet temperature before aftercooler(„hot“) Outlet temperature behind aftercooler („cold“) Final pressure Temperature of cooling water Suction conditions (climatic values) Suction pressure (height above sea level) Ambient temperature Necessary pressure dew point (summer / winter)

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALMi. G Kompressoren Gmb. H Adolf-Ehmann-Strasse 2 • 73257 Köngen Sales

ALM Adsorption Dryers ALMi. G Kompressoren Gmb. H Adolf-Ehmann-Strasse 2 • 73257 Köngen Sales tel. no. : +49 (0)7024 9614 -240 Sales e-mail address: [email protected] de www. almig. de 32