Algorithms CS 202 Epp section Aaron Bloomfield 1

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Algorithms CS 202 Epp section ? ? ? Aaron Bloomfield 1

Algorithms CS 202 Epp section ? ? ? Aaron Bloomfield 1

What is an algorithm? An algorithm is “a finite set of precise instructions for

What is an algorithm? An algorithm is “a finite set of precise instructions for performing a computation or for solving a problem” n A program is one type of algorithm All programs are algorithms Not all algorithms are programs! n n n Directions to somebody’s house is an algorithm A recipe for cooking a cake is an algorithm The steps to compute the cosine of 90° is an algorithm 2

Some algorithms are harder than others Some algorithms are easy n n Finding the

Some algorithms are harder than others Some algorithms are easy n n Finding the largest (or smallest) value in a list Finding a specific value in a list Some algorithms are a bit harder n Sorting a list Some algorithms are very hard n Finding the shortest path between Miami and Seattle Some algorithms are essentially impossible n Factoring large composite numbers In section 2. 2, we’ll see how to rate how “hard” algorithms are 3

Algorithm 1: Maximum element Given a list, how do we find the maximum element

Algorithm 1: Maximum element Given a list, how do we find the maximum element in the list? To express the algorithm, we’ll use pseudocode n Pseudocode is kinda like a programming language, but not really 4

Algorithm 1: Maximum element Algorithm for finding the maximum element in a list: procedure

Algorithm 1: Maximum element Algorithm for finding the maximum element in a list: procedure max (a 1, a 2, …, an: integers) max : = a 1 for i : = 2 to n if max < ai then max : = ai {max is the largest element} 5

Algorithm 1: Maximum element procedure max (a 1, a 2, …, an: integers) max

Algorithm 1: Maximum element procedure max (a 1, a 2, …, an: integers) max : = a 1 for i : = 2 to n max if max < ai then max : = ai 9 7 4 a 1 a 2 a 3 a 4 a 5 a 6 a 7 a 8 a 9 a 10 4 1 7 0 5 2 9 3 6 8 i 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 6

Maximum element running time How long does this take? If the list has n

Maximum element running time How long does this take? If the list has n elements, worst case scenario is that it takes n “steps” n Here, a step is considered a single step through the list 7

Properties of algorithms Algorithms generally share a set of properties: n n n n

Properties of algorithms Algorithms generally share a set of properties: n n n n Input: what the algorithm takes in as input Output: what the algorithm produces as output Definiteness: the steps are defined precisely Correctness: should produce the correct output Finiteness: the steps required should be finite Effectiveness: each step must be able to be performed in a finite amount of time Generality: the algorithm should be applicable to all problems of a similar form 8

Searching algorithms Given a list, find a specific element in the list We will

Searching algorithms Given a list, find a specific element in the list We will see two types n Linear search a. k. a. sequential search n Binary search 9

Algorithm 2: Linear search Given a list, find a specific element in the list

Algorithm 2: Linear search Given a list, find a specific element in the list n List does NOT have to be sorted! procedure linear_search (x: integer; a 1, a 2, …, an: integers) i : = 1 while ( i ≤ n and x ≠ ai ) i : = i + 1 if i ≤ n then location : = i else location : = 0 {location is the subscript of the term that equals x, or it is 0 if x is not found} 10

Algorithm 2: Linear search, take 1 procedure linear_search (x: integer; a 1, a 2,

Algorithm 2: Linear search, take 1 procedure linear_search (x: integer; a 1, a 2, …, an: integers) i : = 1 while ( i ≤ n and x ≠ ai ) x 3 i : = i + 1 if i ≤ n then location : = i location 8 else location : = 0 a 1 a 2 a 3 a 4 a 5 a 6 a 7 a 8 a 9 a 10 4 1 7 0 5 2 9 3 6 8 i 1 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 11

Algorithm 2: Linear search, take 2 procedure linear_search (x: integer; a 1, a 2,

Algorithm 2: Linear search, take 2 procedure linear_search (x: integer; a 1, a 2, …, an: integers) i : = 1 while ( i ≤ n and x ≠ ai ) x 11 i : = i + 1 if i ≤ n then location : = i location 0 else location : = 0 a 1 a 2 a 3 a 4 a 5 a 6 a 7 a 8 a 9 a 10 4 1 7 0 5 2 9 3 6 8 i 90 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 11 12

Linear search running time How long does this take? If the list has n

Linear search running time How long does this take? If the list has n elements, worst case scenario is that it takes n “steps” n Here, a step is considered a single step through the list 13

Algorithm 3: Binary search Given a list, find a specific element in the list

Algorithm 3: Binary search Given a list, find a specific element in the list n List MUST be sorted! Each time it iterates through, it cuts the list in half procedure binary_search (x: integer; a 1, a 2, …, an: increasing integers) i : = 1 { i is left endpoint of search interval } j : = n { j is right endpoint of search interval } while i < j begin m : = (i+j)/2 { m is the point in the middle } if x > am then i : = m+1 else j : = m end if x = ai then location : = i else location : = 0 {location is the subscript of the term that equals x, or it is 0 if x is not found} 14

Algorithm 3: Binary search, take 1 procedure binary_search (x: integer; a 1, a 2,

Algorithm 3: Binary search, take 1 procedure binary_search (x: integer; a 1, a 2, …, an: increasing integers) i : = 1 j : = n while i < j begin m : = (i+j)/2 if x > am then i : = m+1 else j : = m end if x = ai then location : = i else location : = 0 x location 14 7 a 1 a 2 a 3 a 4 a 5 a 6 a 7 a 8 a 9 a 10 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 i 1 6 7 m 5 8 7 6 j 10 8 7 15

Algorithm 3: Binary search, take 2 procedure binary_search (x: integer; a 1, a 2,

Algorithm 3: Binary search, take 2 procedure binary_search (x: integer; a 1, a 2, …, an: increasing integers) i : = 1 j : = n while i < j begin m : = (i+j)/2 if x > am then i : = m+1 else j : = m end if x = ai then location : = Ii else location : = 0 x location 15 0 a 1 a 2 a 3 a 4 a 5 a 6 a 7 a 8 a 9 a 10 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 i 1 6 8 m 5 8 7 j 10 8 16

Algorithm 3: Binary search A somewhat alternative view of what a binary search does…

Algorithm 3: Binary search A somewhat alternative view of what a binary search does… 17

Binary search running time How long does this take (worst case)? If the list

Binary search running time How long does this take (worst case)? If the list has 8 elements n It takes 3 steps If the list has 16 elements n It takes 4 steps If the list has 64 elements n It takes 6 steps If the list has n elements n It takes log 2 n steps 18

Sorting algorithms Given a list, put it into some order n Numerical, lexicographic, etc.

Sorting algorithms Given a list, put it into some order n Numerical, lexicographic, etc. We will see two types n n Bubble sort Insertion sort 19

Algorithm 4: Bubble sort One of the most simple sorting algorithms n Also one

Algorithm 4: Bubble sort One of the most simple sorting algorithms n Also one of the least efficient It takes successive elements and “bubbles” them up the list procedure bubble_sort (a 1, a 2, …, an) for i : = 1 to n-1 for j : = 1 to n-i if aj > aj+1 then interchange aj and aj+1 { a 1, …, an are in increasing order } 20

Algorithm 4: Bubble sort An example using physical objects… 22

Algorithm 4: Bubble sort An example using physical objects… 22

Bubble sort running time Bubble sort algorithm: for i : = 1 to n-1

Bubble sort running time Bubble sort algorithm: for i : = 1 to n-1 for j : = 1 to n-i if aj > aj+1 then interchange aj and aj+1 Outer for loop does n-1 iterations Inner for loop does n n n-1 iterations the first time n-2 iterations the second time … 1 iteration the last time Total: (n-1) + (n-2) + (n-3) + … + 2 + 1 = (n 2 -n)/2 n We can say that’s “about” n 2 time 23

Algorithm 5: Insertion sort Another simple (and inefficient) algorithm It starts with a list

Algorithm 5: Insertion sort Another simple (and inefficient) algorithm It starts with a list with one element, and inserts new elements into their proper place in the sorted part of the list procedure insertion_sort (a 1, a 2, …, an) for j : = 2 to n take successive elements in the list begin i : = 1 find where that element should be while aj > ai in the sorted portion of the list i : = i +1 m : = aj move all elements in the sorted for k : = 0 to j-i-1 portion of the list that are greater aj-k : = aj-k-1 than the current element up by one ai : = m end { a 1, a 2, …, an are sorted } put the current element into it’s proper place in the sorted portion of the list 25

Insertion sort running time for j : = 2 to n begin i :

Insertion sort running time for j : = 2 to n begin i : = 1 while aj > ai i : = i +1 m : = aj for k : = 0 to j-i-1 aj-k : = aj-k-1 ai : = m end { a 1, a 2, …, an are sorted } Outer for loop runs n-1 times In the inner for loop: n n Worst case is when the while keeps i at 1, and the for loop runs lots of times If i is 1, the inner for loop runs 1 time (k goes from 0 to 0) on the first iteration, 1 time on the second, up to n-2 times on the last iteration Total is 1 + 2 + … + n-2 = (n-1)(n-2)/2 n We can say that’s “about” n 2 time 26

Comparison of running times Searches n n n Linear: n steps Binary: log 2

Comparison of running times Searches n n n Linear: n steps Binary: log 2 n steps Binary search is about as fast as you can get Sorts n n n Bubble: n 2 steps Insertion: n 2 steps There are other, more efficient, sorting techniques In principle, the fastest are heap sort, quick sort, and merge sort These each take n * log 2 n steps In practice, quick sort is the fastest, followed by merge sort 27