- Slides: 55
Alexandre Latchininsky Assistant Professor/Extension Entomologist Dept. of Renewable Resources Weed & Pest Conference Casper, November 9, 2006
Rangeland grasshopper management
• RAATs became a USDA-APHIS treatment option under the 2002 EIS. • In 2000 -2006, RAATs approach was used in 10 western states.
ATV-RAATs: North Dakota Experience 2004 • Dimilin cost was $ 179. 70 per gallon One gallon treats 256 RAATS acres: 70 cents/RAATs acre • Sevin XLR Plus was $ 29. 11 per gallon. One gallon treats 17 RAATs acres: $1. 71 /RAATs acre
Refining RAATs: New Products?
Pyriproxyfen (Knack®) Grasshopper Efficacy Trials 2006 Pyriproxyfen is an Insect Growth Regulator - juvenile hormone mimic
% Corrected Mortality in 2006 Trials Date Plot – Treatment 5 June 06 14 June 06 21 June 06 1 d pre 8 d post 15 d post 28 July 06 5 July 06 22 d post 28 d post Avg. of UTC plots density per sq. m 16. 6 17. 1 15. 8 14. 8 11. 1 ULV Pyriproxyfen NA 10. 9% -5. 4% -12. 5% -20. 7% Knack SW NA 14. 9% 10. 2% 13. 9% -5. 2% Knack SE NA 22. 5% 52. 4% 38. 3% -7. 3% Dimilin NE NA 77. 2% 95. 4% 90. 1% 97. 8%
CONCLUSIONS • Grasshopper densities were not reduced below the economic threshold in any plot treated with pyriproxyfen, either the Knack® or ULV pyriproxyfen formulation. • At the 21 and 28 d sampling period some treated grasshoppers exhibited both juvenile and adult characteristics (“sublethal effect”). • This suggests that 30 g of active ingredient per acre rate may be too low to be effective on rangeland grasshoppers.
Grasshopper Biological Control Pathogens: Weapons of the future?
Beauveria bassiana • • • A fungal pathogen naturally occurring in soil Acts by contact and causes disease “White muscardine” and eventually death of grasshoppers Strain GHA isolated from Montana grasshoppers Mass production and commercialization by Emerald. Bio (USA) sold in 2005 to Laverlam S. A. (Columbia) Liquid formulation of spores in oil – Mycotrol O®
Beauveria bassiana Mycotrol® O PROS: Liquid formulation of spores in oil >70% control in 14 days (lab) Safety (humans and wildlife) Controls other pests CONS: Reliability (condition dependent; needs moisture) Inconsistent efficacy (good infection rate but not sufficient kill) Cost (>$20 per acre)
Irrigated pastures in Fremont Co. , WY
Pre-treatment densities: 23 -44 gh/square m Camnula pellucida
ATV plot size 20 ac 50% coverage Date 23 June 2004
% GRASSHOPPER MORTALITY, EMULSIFIED SOYBEAN OIL ADJUVANT
® O Mycotrol treatment: How much does it cost? Mycotrol price: $100/gal => dose rate $25/ac 1 qt/ac => Oil carrier price: $20/gal => dose rate $2. 50/ac ½ qt/ac => Total cost of the product: $27. 50/ac + cost of treatment…
Conclusions • Beauveria has high infection rate, provoking mycoses in grasshoppers • However, grasshopper mortality is less than optimal • Applied at recommended rates, Beauveria treatment is very costly • Such “organic” treatment might represent an alternative to synthetic insecticides in certain situations (e. g. , ecologically sensitive areas)
Acknowledgments Funding: EPA/IR-4 grant Fremont County Weed and Pest Council Special thanks: Luke Oestman (UW) Lars Baker and Nancy Webber (Fremont Co. W&P)
Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum Green Muscle® • Very high specificity against grasshoppers • Commercially produced by CABI (U. K. ) • Awaiting EPA permit to use the South African isolate for field trials in collaboration with USDA-ARS (most probably, in 2008)
Recent Grasshopper Publications Wyoming Grasshopper Field Guide Western Pest Grasshopper Poster Available free of charge from UW-CES Bulletin Office Dee Bixby 766 -2115 [email protected] edu
National Exhibition of Land Grant Universities at Capitol Hill, 2005
Other rangeland pests Black Grass Bugs
Conclusions from MSU study: §BGB damage reduced percent crude protein and increased ADF and NDF; related to forage protein, digestibility and ruminant intake, respectively. §Grazing management reduced black grass bug densities. Black Grass Bug abundances were clearly lowest in the most heavily-grazing plots. Because the sites had been grazed in the same manner since 1993, this suggests that there were carry-over effects from grazing between years. Labops hesperius IPM Strategy for Sustainable Black Grass Bug Management in Wyoming Grasslands Enrolled in Conservation Reserve Program – proposal submitted to UW AES Competitive Grants Program
Mosquito research Utilizing Stable Isotopes in Determining the Larval Development Sites of Adult Mosquitoes Project by Travis Gilchriest, M. S. Candidate
The Question • Where adults emerging in relation to trap location? – Are they derived primarily from nearby habitats or are they migrants? – What distances will adults fly from larval development sites?
Objectives • Demonstrate the viability of stable isotope analysis as a tool in mosquito population studies • Investigate distribution dynamics of mosquito populations • Help to shape mosquito control measures for the most effective use of resources
Study Area • Torrington – Goshen Co. , WY – High population of mosquitoes – Species: Culex tarsalis, Aedes vexans – Agricultural community – Multiple sources of water for larval habitat – Control resources are limited
Approach • Mark-recapture to determine adult distribution patterns • Label a habitat with 15 N marker • Concentric adult trapping around labeled habitat • Analyze adults for presence of the marker
Preliminary Results of the 2005 -2006 Studies
Specimen Collection and Preparation • Larvae were collected from habitats with standard dippers • Reared in original habitat water to adults in emergence chambers • Ten adults were collect from the emergence chambers for each site • Adults were killed by freezing and oven dried at 40°C • Samples were submitted for 13 C and 15 N analysis in a Continuous Flow-IRMS
Alfalfa field Pioneer Park Mosquito Habitats Trash cans Holly Sugar pond
Habitat Comparisons (Culex tarsalis)
Torrington Habitat Stats • • δ 13 C and δ 15 N isotopic means (based on ANOVA) for various habitats in the Torrington, WY area. Post Hoc analysis with Dunnett C. Using a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance due to failure of homogeneity of variances requirements preventing a oneway ANOVA • For corrected δ 13 C, p<0. 05 • For corrected δ 15 N, p<0. 05 Habitat δ 13 C δ 15 N Alfalfa -19. 90 A 13. 13 A Trash Can -21. 63 B 8. 37 B Pioneer Park -24. 78 C 10. 65 C Holly Pond 1 -22. 98 D 14. 23 A
Forest pests Mountain Pine Beetle Project in Medicine Bow National Forest Diana Dean, M. S. Candidate
Attack Frequency v Lodgepole attack ratio v Limber attack ratio 1: 20 1: 1. 8
MPB Flight 2004 and 2005 2004: Adult MPB started to fly as early as in mid-May with a peak in early August 2005: Low MPB numbers compared to 2004, with a peak in late August
CAPS Program ECB was the only target pest found in CAPS traps in 2005
UW Arthropod ID Clinic Objective: Provide accurate and timely arthropod identification to clientele Samples processed: 2003 2004 2005 60 135 221 Contact: Scott Schell, Assistant Extension Entomologist 766 -2508 or [email protected] edu Request arthropod ID through your County Extension Educators
Horticultural pests Cabbage moth caterpillar Thrips damage Cabbage white butterfly Colorado potato beetle
Available on the web and from UW-CES Bulletin Office Dee Bixby 766 -2115 [email protected] edu
In Preparation: Field Guide to Common Wyoming Butterflies and Moths The Guide will include pictures of adult butterflies and caterpillars, and information on larval food plants, as well as advices on attracting butterflies to gardens.
UW Entomology Short Course 2006
UW Entomology Short Course 2006
UW Entomology Short Course 2006
UW Entomology Short Course 2006 Whitney Cranshaw, CSU
Come catch the Entomology Short Course, 2007 What will be covered? General Entomology, Insect Identification, Arachnids, Biological Control, Mosquitoes, and more. When is it? The class will be held on February 6 th, 7 th, and 8 th (T, W, TR), 2007. We will begin at 1 PM on the first day, go from 8 to 5 the second day and release you at noon on the third day. Where is it? College of Agriculture Building, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY. Who teaches it? Dr. Alex Latchininsky & Scott Schell, UW-CES Extension Entomologists. Plus guest lectures by other experts in their fields. You will get two books, a course packet, and 2 hours of college credit for as little as a $75, if we can get a minimum of 10 students to attend.
Grasshopper Management Workshop?
GRASSHOPPER MANAGEMENT IN WYOMING Train-the-Trainers Workshop presented by Alexandre Latchininsky and Scott Schell, UW Extension Entomologists Sponsored by: USDA-APHIS-PPQ
Flasher, North Dakota Grasshopper Workshop Tentative Agenda Nov. 30, 2006 Introduction: The 3 -Phase Approach to Grasshopper IPM 11: 00 -11: 40 Reduced Agent-Area Treatments: Do More with Less 11: 40 -12: 05 LUNCH BREAK 12: 05 -1: 00 Liquids: Old (and New) Reliables and Their Non-target Effects 1: 00 -1: 30 ATV-RAATs: Control for Grasshoppers You Control 1: 30 -2: 00 Grazing Management: More Grass, Fewer Grasshoppers 2: 00 -2: 10 New-and-Improved CARMA: Is It Worth Treating? 2: 10 -2: 20 The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Who's Who Among Grasshoppers 2: 20 -3: 00 USDA APHIS PPQ: Organizing a Cooperative Spray Block 3: 00 -3: 15 Evaluation of Workshop: What We Did Right/Wrong 3: 15 -3: 20
Wyo W&P Thank You for Your Attention!