Alabamas New South Era Industrialization and Urbanization 1865

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Alabama’s New South Era: Industrialization and Urbanization, 1865 -1914 Created by: Mrs. Looser Lanett

Alabama’s New South Era: Industrialization and Urbanization, 1865 -1914 Created by: Mrs. Looser Lanett High School Alabama History Education Initiative, Cohort I 2009 -2010

Industrial Development Needs Raw Materials Land Labor: unskilled and skilled Transportation for workers and

Industrial Development Needs Raw Materials Land Labor: unskilled and skilled Transportation for workers and products Capital Entrepreneurs and managers to drive the process

Alabama: Center for Iron and Coal Production in South Jefferson County area: Coal, iron

Alabama: Center for Iron and Coal Production in South Jefferson County area: Coal, iron ore, and limestone Necessities for steel industry • Video clip: Sloss Furnace, Pig Iron Production • http: //www. encyclopediaofalabama. org/face/Multi media. jsp? id=m-4087

Early Iron and Coal Production Alabama Coal Mining Company, 1856 in Montevallo Civil War

Early Iron and Coal Production Alabama Coal Mining Company, 1856 in Montevallo Civil War stimulated mining and iron industry Revived after Civil War in Jefferson County, Bibb County, Cherokee County, and Shelby County

Birmingham Elyton Land Company laid out city in 1871 Founded where 2 railroad lines

Birmingham Elyton Land Company laid out city in 1871 Founded where 2 railroad lines crossed Grew up around iron, coal, and steel industry Flourished as iron industry grew in 1880 s Named the “Magic City” because of rapid growth

Early Iron Industries Eureka Mining Company in Birmingham Managed by Henry F. De. Bardeleben,

Early Iron Industries Eureka Mining Company in Birmingham Managed by Henry F. De. Bardeleben, sonin-law of Daniel Pratt (Alabama’s premier entrepreneur) Mined coal and made iron Became Eureka Mining and Transportation Company Developed blast furnace for making coke pig iron

Growth Pig iron production 11, 000 tons in 1872 800, 000 tons in 1890

Growth Pig iron production 11, 000 tons in 1872 800, 000 tons in 1890 1, 000 tons in 1900 Jefferson County Population: • 12, 345 in 1870 • 23, 272 in 1880 • 88, 501 in 1900 Rogers, William Warren, Robert D. Ward, Leah Rawls Atkins, and Wayne Flynt. Alabama: The History of a Deep South State. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1994. 281.

TCI Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company Bought the Pratt Company and other competitors

TCI Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company Bought the Pratt Company and other competitors Developed in late 1800 s Purchased by U. S. Steel in 1907 http: //www. pratthistory. com/henry_f__de bardeleben. htm

Sloss Furnace Company Established in 1881 by Col. James W. Sloss Multimedia clip on

Sloss Furnace Company Established in 1881 by Col. James W. Sloss Multimedia clip on The Rise of the Sloss Furnace Company http: //www. encyclopedi aofalabama. org/face/Mu ltimedia. jsp? id=m-4085 http: //www. encyclopediaofalabama. org/f ace/Article. jsp? id=h-1818

Pittsburgh-Plus System Northerners controlled iron and steel industry from Pittsburgh Charged shipping rates for

Pittsburgh-Plus System Northerners controlled iron and steel industry from Pittsburgh Charged shipping rates for Alabama steel based on mileage from Pittsburgh http: //www. encyclopediaofalabama. org/face/Arti cle. jsp? id=h-1818

Mining Labor Force, 1890 34. 9% native-born whites 18. 7 % foreign born: England,

Mining Labor Force, 1890 34. 9% native-born whites 18. 7 % foreign born: England, Scotland, Ireland, Holland, and Italy 46. 2 % Black. 2% Convicts from state and county prisons (Rogers, p. 283) http: //www. encyclopediaofalabam a. org/face/Multimedia. jsp? id=m 2434

Sloss Workers cont. Media clip on Sloss Workers Quarters http: //www. encyclopediao falabama. org/face/Multi

Sloss Workers cont. Media clip on Sloss Workers Quarters http: //www. encyclopediao falabama. org/face/Multi media. jsp? id=m-6183 http: //www. encyclopediaofalabam a. org/face/Multimedia. jsp? id=m 6325

Convict Leasing http: //www. encyclopediaofalabama. org/face/Article. jsp? id=h-1638 1846 Alabama law allowed state to

Convict Leasing http: //www. encyclopediaofalabama. org/face/Article. jsp? id=h-1638 1846 Alabama law allowed state to lease convicts to employers State earned the money Leased convicts were also employed in lumber and cotton mills

Banner Mine Tragedy 1911 Birmingham tragedy 128 African American convicts killed Outcry for end

Banner Mine Tragedy 1911 Birmingham tragedy 128 African American convicts killed Outcry for end to convict leasing Led to mining safety bill http: //www. encyclopediaofalabama. org /face/Multimedia. jsp? id=m-2431

Alabama Entrepreneurs Daniel Pratt Henry F. De. Bardeleben James W. Sloss Enoch Ensley Braxton

Alabama Entrepreneurs Daniel Pratt Henry F. De. Bardeleben James W. Sloss Enoch Ensley Braxton Bragg Comer

Textile Industry Many argued for textile mills located near cotton areas By 1860: 14

Textile Industry Many argued for textile mills located near cotton areas By 1860: 14 mills in Alabama Small operations with average work force of 94 Workers were mostly women http: //www. forttyler. com/industry. ht m

Mill Growth, late 1800 s http: //preservationscoreboard. uwa. edu/in play/millcomplex. htm Began rapid growth

Mill Growth, late 1800 s http: //preservationscoreboard. uwa. edu/in play/millcomplex. htm Began rapid growth in 1880 1890: 13 mills, employ 2, 088 1900, 31 mills, employ 8, 332 workers 38% men, 33% women, and 29% children under 18

Textile Towns Mills located in smaller towns Autaugaville Prattville Tallassee Lanett Langdale Alexander City

Textile Towns Mills located in smaller towns Autaugaville Prattville Tallassee Lanett Langdale Alexander City Sylacauga http: //www. moodyscollectibles. com/USVIEWS/ Alabama/alabama 12699. htm

Towns competed for mill locations Good return on investments Save on raw material shipping

Towns competed for mill locations Good return on investments Save on raw material shipping costs Major attraction: Cheap labor Investments in 1880: 20% return 1897 State law: exempted anyone who invested $50, 000 in a textile mill from all state, county, and municipal taxes for 10 years

Paternalistic System Companies built mill villages Operated company stores State’s first major employment for

Paternalistic System Companies built mill villages Operated company stores State’s first major employment for women Also employed many children http: //www. alalabor. state. al. us/CH ILD_LABOR. htm

Industrialization in Alabama A mixed blessing Helped some Hurt others Alternative to tenant farming

Industrialization in Alabama A mixed blessing Helped some Hurt others Alternative to tenant farming and sharecropping Produced reformers Also produced a new class of workers Other mills: Grist mills Flour mills Wool mills 1880: 2000 mills with 10, 000 employees 1900: 5000 mills with 30, 000 employees http: //www. encyclopediaofalabama. org/f ace/Article. jsp? id=h-2128

Bibliography “New South Era. ” Encyclopedia of Alabama. • http: //www. encyclopediaofalabama. org Retrieved

Bibliography “New South Era. ” Encyclopedia of Alabama. • http: //www. encyclopediaofalabama. org Retrieved July 11, 2009. Rogers, William Warren, Robert D. Ward, Leah Rawls Atkins, and Wayne Flynt. Alabama: The History of a Deep South State. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1994.