Airspace Concept Evaluation System State of Development POC

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Airspace Concept Evaluation System. State of Development POC: Kee Palopo Kee. Palopo@nasa. gov 10

Airspace Concept Evaluation System. State of Development POC: Kee Palopo Kee. [email protected] gov 10 December 2008

Outline (Process F Requirements F Development (ACES 6. 0 (Near-term Capabilities) (Studies Using ACES

Outline (Process F Requirements F Development (ACES 6. 0 (Near-term Capabilities) (Studies Using ACES (Planned ACES Development 2

Requirements Process (Project Driven (milestones and principal investigators) (Review F Branch and Division n

Requirements Process (Project Driven (milestones and principal investigators) (Review F Branch and Division n Start with Research Question n Experiment Plan F Meetings F Workshops and Conferences (Request For Proposals 3

Development Phases Build N Requirements* Build N+1 One Year FAA, Glenn, JPDO, Langley, Others

Development Phases Build N Requirements* Build N+1 One Year FAA, Glenn, JPDO, Langley, Others Main Build *includes enhancement and maintenance 4

ACES 6. 0 (Communication, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) models with uncertainty (Advanced Airspace Concept

ACES 6. 0 (Communication, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) models with uncertainty (Advanced Airspace Concept (AAC) (Pre-computed schedule of sector capacities (Dynamic Sub-sector Assignment (Swappable Trajectory Generator (Traffic Management Advisor (ACES-FACET 5

Studies Using ACES ( S. Karahan, S. Zelinski, “Creating Convective Weather Scenarios for Simulating

Studies Using ACES ( S. Karahan, S. Zelinski, “Creating Convective Weather Scenarios for Simulating Weather Reroutes, ” AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference and Exhibit, ” AIAA 2007 -6557 Hilton Head, South Carolina Aug. 20 -23, 2007 ( R. Windhorst, H. Erzberger, “Fast-Time Simulation of an Automated Conflict Detection and Resolution Concept, ” 6 th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration and Operations Conference (ATIO), Wichita, Kansas, Sept. 25 6 -27, 2006

Studies Using ACES (cont’d) ( S. Zelinski, L. Meyn, “Validating the Airspace Concept Evaluation

Studies Using ACES (cont’d) ( S. Zelinski, L. Meyn, “Validating the Airspace Concept Evaluation System for Different Weather Days, ” AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference and Exhibit, Keystone, Colorado, Aug. 21 -24, 2006 ( K. Palopo, R. Windhorst, B. Musaffar, M. Refai, “Economic and Safety Impacts of Flight Routing in the National Airspace System, ” 7 th AIAA ATIO Conference, Belfast, Northern Ireland, Sept. 18 -20, 2007 7

Studies Using ACES (cont’d) ( G. Chatterji, Y. Zheng, “Impact of Airport Capacity Constraints

Studies Using ACES (cont’d) ( G. Chatterji, Y. Zheng, “Impact of Airport Capacity Constraints on National Airspace System Delays, ” 7 th AIAA ATIO Conference, Belfast, Northern Ireland, Sep. 18 -20, 2007 ( S. Sahlman, “Description and Analysis of a High Fidelity Airspace Model for the Airspace Concept Evaluation System, ” AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference and Exhibit, Hilton Head, South Carolina, Aug. 2023, 2007 8

Ongoing Studies Using ACES (Nation-wide Separation Assurance using AAC F Single-center NAS-wide F 42

Ongoing Studies Using ACES (Nation-wide Separation Assurance using AAC F Single-center NAS-wide F 42 K flights 24 hours F 25 hours on one high-end Mac (Wind-Optimal Study F Annual basis F 1 X traffic F 4 hours on 7 Linux machines F Plot by airlines 9

Conflicts Types and Resolution Order ( Auto resolver is designed to resolve three types

Conflicts Types and Resolution Order ( Auto resolver is designed to resolve three types of conflicts: F Loss of separation conflicts F Weather conflicts F Arrival sequencing conflicts ( An aircraft may be involved with all three types at the same time Source: Dr. Heinz Erzberger 10

Conflicts Types and Resolution Order (cont’d) ( Auto resolver resolves conflicts in the following

Conflicts Types and Resolution Order (cont’d) ( Auto resolver resolves conflicts in the following sequence: F Weather conflicts F Arrival sequencing conflicts F Loss of separation conflicts 11

Flow Chart for Algorithm Input Conflict Pair Resolution Maneuver Generator Formulas and logic for

Flow Chart for Algorithm Input Conflict Pair Resolution Maneuver Generator Formulas and logic for calculating simplified resolution traj. 4 D Trajectory Synthesizer No Heavy duty numerical calculations Traj. completed? Yes Check traj. for conflicts Yes Conflicts detected ? No Res. Traj. accepted 12

Resolution Process Current list of conflicts Pick next conflict for resolution Resolution algorithm Continue

Resolution Process Current list of conflicts Pick next conflict for resolution Resolution algorithm Continue this loop until all conflicts are resolved Yes Updated at regular intervals Priority based on time to first loss Generates multiple resolutions for each aircraft; special rules for weather conflicts Weather conflict? No Yes Secondary conflict? No Update flight plan Execute resolution Current flight plan is replaced with resolution flight plan

AAC Remarks (An algorithm that generates resolution trajectories for the full spectrum of possible

AAC Remarks (An algorithm that generates resolution trajectories for the full spectrum of possible conflicts has been designed (Simultaneously resolves conflicts with convective weather, loss of separation conflicts and sequencing conflicts. (Algorithm comprises a mix of rule-based procedures and analytical formulas. (ACES has proven to be a valuable tool for development and analysis of algorithm 14

AAC Remarks (cont’d) (Real time controller and pilot interactive simulations have demonstrated high degree

AAC Remarks (cont’d) (Real time controller and pilot interactive simulations have demonstrated high degree of controller and pilot acceptance at up to 3 x traffic levels. (Web-based documentation of software has been developed to assist in technology transfer to users 15

Another Separation Assurance Study (Trajectory prediction uncertainties for AAC: F Aircraft weight F Descent

Another Separation Assurance Study (Trajectory prediction uncertainties for AAC: F Aircraft weight F Descent profile F Wind uncertainty F Maneuver initiation delays (Aircraft-based AAC (Multi-center AAC Source: Dr. Todd Lauderdale 16

Trajectory Prediction Uncertainties Predicted Actual Predicted (Can introduce uncertainties into the trajectory used for

Trajectory Prediction Uncertainties Predicted Actual Predicted (Can introduce uncertainties into the trajectory used for conflict prediction (Uncertainties can be controlled and understood 17

Aircraft-Based AAC r (Each aircraft is aware of all aircraft in the sensor range

Aircraft-Based AAC r (Each aircraft is aware of all aircraft in the sensor range ‘r’ (Each aircraft uses AAC to resolve conflicts of which they are aware 18

Aircraft-based AAC Unresolved Conflicts 19

Aircraft-based AAC Unresolved Conflicts 19

Aircraft-based AAC Time to First Loss 20

Aircraft-based AAC Time to First Loss 20

Aircraft-based AAC- Run Time 21

Aircraft-based AAC- Run Time 21

Multi-Center AAC (AAC can run in multiple centers simultaneously (A buffer of control and

Multi-Center AAC (AAC can run in multiple centers simultaneously (A buffer of control and visibility can be established around each center ZOB AAC ZID AAC ZDC AAC 22

Planned ACES Development (Integrate enhanced terminal model TME/STLE into ACES 7 -11 (Port and

Planned ACES Development (Integrate enhanced terminal model TME/STLE into ACES 7 -11 (Port and Enhance Weather Agent (Enhance Traffic Flow Management (TFM) (Other Model Enhancements (Metric Enhancements (Dynamic Density, Complexity, and AAC) 23

Planned ACES Development (cont’d) (Miscellaneous Supporting Tools F Terminal Area and Airport Surface Editor

Planned ACES Development (cont’d) (Miscellaneous Supporting Tools F Terminal Area and Airport Surface Editor F ACES Viewer Development with Air Force Research Laboratory F ACES Toolbox Enhancements 24

STLE Surface Modeling 25

STLE Surface Modeling 25

Automated Terminal Area Node-link Generator 26

Automated Terminal Area Node-link Generator 26

Example TAASE Editor View 27

Example TAASE Editor View 27

Enhanced Terminal Modeling (Airport Air Traffic Control F Model 4 D Traffic Movement on

Enhanced Terminal Modeling (Airport Air Traffic Control F Model 4 D Traffic Movement on Surface F Determine runway takeoffs/landing and gate entries/exits (Airport TFM – Generate TFM Landing Restrictions (TRACON TFM – Propagate Arrival Fix Crossing Restrictions 28

Enhanced Terminal Modeling (cont’d) (TRACON Air Traffic Control F Model 4 D Traffic Movement

Enhanced Terminal Modeling (cont’d) (TRACON Air Traffic Control F Model 4 D Traffic Movement through Terminal Airspace F Determine Airport Landing/Departure Fix Crossings (Flight – 4 D Trajectory for Terminal/En Route Airspace 29

Airport Air Traffic Control (Surface 4 D route/re-route planning with/without Required Time of Arrivals

Airport Air Traffic Control (Surface 4 D route/re-route planning with/without Required Time of Arrivals (Surface 4 D route/re-route and clearance limit assignment (Surface domain representation: Gate, Ramp, Taxiway, Runway (Gate assignment and occupancy management (Ramp and Taxiway intersection transit control 30 with gridlock resolution

Airport Air Traffic Control (cont’d) (Takeoff runway assignment (Runway takeoff/landing/taxi crossing transit control (Surface

Airport Air Traffic Control (cont’d) (Takeoff runway assignment (Runway takeoff/landing/taxi crossing transit control (Surface transit Required Time of Arrival conformance monitoring/alerting (Surface traffic state monitoring/alerting 31

Airport Air Traffic Control (cont’d) (Autonomous flight movement with aircraft intrail self-separation F Acceleration/Deceleration

Airport Air Traffic Control (cont’d) (Autonomous flight movement with aircraft intrail self-separation F Acceleration/Deceleration F Nominal Roll/Stochastic speed assignment subject to speed limit 32

Airport Traffic Flow Management (Gate assignment and occupancy time prediction (Runway assignment prediction (Surface

Airport Traffic Flow Management (Gate assignment and occupancy time prediction (Runway assignment prediction (Surface 4 D route prediction with/without Required Time of Arrivals (Traffic Flow Management Runway takeoff/landing planning (Takeoff-time Traffic Flow Management Restriction generation 33

Airport ATC/TFM Utilities (Gate selector (Runway selector (Surface prescribed route assigner (Surface shortest path

Airport ATC/TFM Utilities (Gate selector (Runway selector (Surface prescribed route assigner (Surface shortest path calculator (Air Traffic Control Runway takeoff/landing planner 34

TRACON Air Traffic Control (Terminal airspace 4 D route/re-route planning with/without Required Time of

TRACON Air Traffic Control (Terminal airspace 4 D route/re-route planning with/without Required Time of Arrivals (Terminal airspace 4 D route/re-route and clearance limit assignment (Landing runway assignment (Airspace fix transit control (Airspace transit Required Time of Arrivals conformance monitoring/alerting (Airspace traffic state monitoring/alerting 35

TRACON Traffic Flow Management (Terminal airspace 4 D route prediction with/without Required Time of

TRACON Traffic Flow Management (Terminal airspace 4 D route prediction with/without Required Time of Arrivals (Arrival/Departure fix crossing planning (Airports operating conditions forecasting (Airports runway configuration planning (Arrival fix crossing-time Traffic Flow Management Restriction propagation 36

MPAS Improvements (Make stable at aircraft minimum speed (Model short flights and low-altitude tower

MPAS Improvements (Make stable at aircraft minimum speed (Model short flights and low-altitude tower en route flights (Integrate Flight Management System generated vertical trajectories to meet restrictions (Support holding patterns (Pluggable 37

Flight Management System (Generate vertical trajectories from route, time, speed, and altitude restrictions (Model

Flight Management System (Generate vertical trajectories from route, time, speed, and altitude restrictions (Model vertical profiles for jet, turboprop, and piston aircraft (Interface with surface movement model at the runway threshold (Pluggable 38

Concluding Remarks (Requirements are gathered from project investigators and researchers and incorporated into development

Concluding Remarks (Requirements are gathered from project investigators and researchers and incorporated into development (Studies go on in parallel (ACES is in active development at one-year cycles F Main trunk F Branches of parallel development 39