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Air Traffic Situational Awareness Applications Søren Dissing/Bill Booth ASAS Thematic Network Seminar Brighton, UK 11 - 13 October 2004
Expected benefits • Safety – Assist flight crews with see-and-avoid duties; – Assist flight crews in avoiding blunders or errors; – Provide information to facilitate correct decisionmaking; and – Provide flight crews with information consistent with that available to the controller.
Expected benefits • Efficiency – Enhanced Visual Approaches; – Airport Surface movements. • Capacity • Environment
What are we talking about? • Enhanced traffic situational awareness on the airport surface – provides the flight crews with an enhanced traffic awareness on the airport surface during both taxi and runway operations – essential to display all surrounding relevant traffic
What are we talking about? • Enhanced traffic situational awareness during flight operations – regardless of visibility conditions during flight additional data is provided to the flight crews – essential to display all relevant traffic – one possible benefit of this application will be enhancements made available to the TIBA procedure.
What are we talking about? • Enhanced visual acquisition for see and avoid – aid to flight crews to perform their collision avoidance task in areas where separation service is not provided by ATC – Alerting and cueing aids to visual acquisition (BASI study, 1991) – benefits proportional to number of aircraft equipped
What are we talking about? • Enhanced successive visual approaches – aid to visual successive approaches where the responsibility to maintain own separation is given to flight crews – minimum pair-wise equipage
Applications status Package 1 • ATSA-SURF Enhanced traffic situational awareness on the airport surface (NUP II, MA-AFAS) • ATSA-AIRB Enhanced traffic situational awareness during flight operations (MA-AFAS, MFF)
Applications status Package 1 • ATSA-S&A Enhanced visual acquisition for see & avoid (NUP – TT Nice) • ATSA-SVA Enhanced successive visual approaches (MA-AFAS, NUP TT Frankfurt)
Technical solutions What is needed • on the ground? – no changes in procedures – no changes in responsibility • But there may be a need for ATC to be aware of equipage!
Technical solutions What is needed • in the air? – no changes in responsibilities – no changes in procedures, only enhancement of current awareness – There may need to be procedures to “do nothing extra”
Technical solutions What is needed • in the air? • CDTI – functionality: – traffic presentation – state vector for traffic – ADS-B equipage/segregated airspace – potentially INTENT info – (intelligent) filtering
Operational approval 1 • All ATSA apps are part of CASCADE • Requirement Focus Group – OSEDs for all apps – thereafter SPR, OHA, OPA • AIRBUS – TIBA voice and E-TIBA work
Operational approval 2 • FALBALA, initial validation of: – ATSA-AIRB – ATSA-VSA (formerly SVA) • Operational benefits depend on Operational Environment!
FALBALA ATSA Operational Assessment • ATSA-AIRB improved common Situational Awareness between controllers and pilots • Little effect on pilot or ATC workload • Pilot Situational Awareness improved, compensating for loss of “party-line” • Mixed opinion on what the CDTI should display
FALBALA ATSA Benefits Assessment • Partial awareness due to partial equipage is an issue • Tendency for pilots to question/hesitate over controller instructions • CDTI clutter filtering (especially TMAs) • All ASAS applications should be assessed together, not just ATSA in isolation
Human Factors “…. there is a danger of circular reasoning in which SA is presented as the cause of itself. ” “SA invites further research to discover the causal relationships between the design of the human-machine systems and the resulting performance” John. M. Flach, Wright State University, Ohio 1995
Costs and Incentives • Changes on the ground – None really, except for the need to be aware of equipage – TIS-B? • Changes in the air – ADS-B – CDTI So, the cost is primarily on the Users….
Costs and Incentives • Incentives? • Benefits – – Individual or Collective? • In Alaska CDTI saves lives • In core area no investment is likely to be made for ATSA applications alone.
Remember the benefits? • Safety – Assist flight crews with see-and-avoid duties; – Assist flight crews in avoiding blunders or errors; – Provide information to facilitate correct decisionmaking; and – Provide flight crews with information consistent with that available to the controller.
Remember the benefits? • Efficiency – Enhanced Visual Approaches; – Airport Surface movements. • Capacity • Environment
ATSA Issues • ATM business as usual – just better informed business with a common picture • No business case for ATSA alone outside remote areas • Difficult to quantify ATSA safety benefits • Changes in SA may not produce predictable outcomes and should be researched and managed.