Air Quality and Noise RS Review 2019 What

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Air Quality and Noise RS Review 2019

Air Quality and Noise RS Review 2019

What to expect? • The current exam description: • only mentions IAQ investigations (2%

What to expect? • The current exam description: • only mentions IAQ investigations (2% or 5 questions) • does not mention noise • Has OHS Inspections (2% or 5 questions) • Today we will review: • Health Impacts of air quality/pollution • Important Air Quality Standards and Regulations • Some Air Sampling Methods & Equipment • Environmental Factors • Health Impacts of Noise • Noise Pollution & Control • Noise Terminology • Important Noise Standards and Regulations

Health impacts – air quality/pollution Average Daily Intake 3 to 5 lbs of water

Health impacts – air quality/pollution Average Daily Intake 3 to 5 lbs of water 1. 5 lbs of dry food 35 lbs of air Pollution Undue burden on respiratory system Contributes to increases in morbidity and mortality

Morbidity (acute/chronic) and Mortality Asthma Lung Cancer Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Emphysema Chronic bronchitis

Morbidity (acute/chronic) and Mortality Asthma Lung Cancer Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Emphysema Chronic bronchitis Irritation Mucus membranes Lining of respiratory tract (upper and lower) Toxicoses Pb, CO, Hg Cardiovascular Disease

Other impacts Economics Physical damage Crops Property Equipment Facilities Medical costs Lost wages Acid

Other impacts Economics Physical damage Crops Property Equipment Facilities Medical costs Lost wages Acid rain Stratospheric ozone depletion Effects on animals/plants Aesthetics Climate change and global warming

Source of Air Pollution Manmade Industrial plants Agricultural pesticides Consumer activities Air conditioning Consumer

Source of Air Pollution Manmade Industrial plants Agricultural pesticides Consumer activities Air conditioning Consumer products Combustion engines Automobiles Boats, planes, lawnmowers, weed whackers, etc… Wood stoves

Sources of air pollution Natural Bioaerosols Mold spores, pollen, bacteria, algae (HABs) Forest and

Sources of air pollution Natural Bioaerosols Mold spores, pollen, bacteria, algae (HABs) Forest and grass fires Ocean sprays/fog/mists Esters/Terpenes O 3 from vegitation & N from lightning Ash, SO 2, HCl, HF, H 2 S from volcanoes Natural radioactivity (Rn and Rn progeny)

Types of air pollutants Primary vs Secondary pollutant Primary – in atmosphere in the

Types of air pollutants Primary vs Secondary pollutant Primary – in atmosphere in the same form as emitted 2 ndary – formed in atmosphere as a result of hydrolysis, oxidation, photochemistry Gases, vapors Organic Hydrocarbons Aldehydes/Ketones Inorganic Oxides of N, S, CO 2, H 2 S, NH 3, Cl Particulate matter (0. 01 to 1000 microns in size PM 2. 5, PM 10

PARTICULATE SIZE MATTERS

PARTICULATE SIZE MATTERS

Types of air pollutants Related to source Combustion Unburned hydrocarbons CO, CO 2 Smoke

Types of air pollutants Related to source Combustion Unburned hydrocarbons CO, CO 2 Smoke Aldehydes Organic gases Impurities in combustible hydrocarbon Coal and oil Sulphuric acid, SO 2 NOx Electrical utilities, industrial boilers, automobiles NO 2, NO (source of N is usually the air used in the combustion) Some fuels contain N Photochemical oxidants (in the presence of sunlight) NOx O 3 Formaldehydes & other volatile organic compounds peroxides

Sources of Pollution Industrial processes Transportation Principal source of hydrocarbons Next largest contributor of

Sources of Pollution Industrial processes Transportation Principal source of hydrocarbons Next largest contributor of hydrocarbons Stationary fuel combustion plants and motor vehicles Major sources of NOx

Pollutant [links to historical tables of NAAQS reviews] Primary/ Secondary Averaging Time Level 8

Pollutant [links to historical tables of NAAQS reviews] Primary/ Secondary Averaging Time Level 8 hours 9 ppm 1 hour 35 ppm Carbon Monoxide (CO) primary Lead (Pb) Rolling 3 primary and month secondary average primary 1 hour Form 0. 15 μg/m 3 (1) Not to be exceeded 100 ppb 98 th percentile of 1 -hour daily maximum concentrations, averaged over 3 years 53 ppb (2) Annual Mean Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2) primary and 1 year secondary Ozone (O 3) Particle Pollution (PM) PM 2. 5 PM 10 Not to be exceeded more than once per year Annual fourth-highest daily maximum 8 -hour concentration, averaged over 3 years primary and 8 hours secondary 0. 070 primary 1 year 12. 0 μg/m 3 annual mean, averaged over 3 years secondary 1 year 15. 0 μg/m 3 annual mean, averaged over 3 years primary and 24 hours secondary 35 μg/m 3 98 th percentile, averaged over 3 years primary and 24 hours secondary 150 μg/m 3 Not to be exceeded more than once per year on average over 3 years primary 1 hour 75 ppb (4) 99 th percentile of 1 -hour daily maximum concentrations, averaged over 3 years secondary 3 hours 0. 5 ppm Not to be exceeded more than once per year ppm (3) Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2)

Standards and Regulations CAA – Clean Air Act 1955 original passage 1967 Federal Air

Standards and Regulations CAA – Clean Air Act 1955 original passage 1967 Federal Air Quality Act Emissions from stationary and motor vehicles Require EPA to develop and set regulatory standards All states must have a state plan and attain the primary standards. NAAQS – National Ambient Air Quality Standards Primary (health related) PM 10, PM 2. 5, SO 2, CO, NO 2, O 3, Pb Secondary (welfare related) No 2 ndary standards for CO SO 2 2 ndary standard are different than primary Rest are same as primary standards

Standards and regulations National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Accidental toxic chemical

Standards and regulations National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Accidental toxic chemical releases Regulations of 188 chemicals Acutely hazardous by toxicity Examples include: Asbestos, arsenic, formaldehyde, benzene, methylene chloride, radionuclides, cadmium, nickel, mercury Specific standards for processes or activities Industrial Demolition Manufacturing

CAA amendments of 1990 Attainment of ambient air quality standards Mobile sources of air

CAA amendments of 1990 Attainment of ambient air quality standards Mobile sources of air pollution Reduction/regulation of toxic emissions from commercial/industrial sources Acid rain Permit system Ozone depleting chemicals Enforcement Visual impairment Research program Training and benefits program for workers that become unemployed because of the CAA

CAA amendments of 1997 More restrictive NAAQS O 3 and PM PM 2. 5

CAA amendments of 1997 More restrictive NAAQS O 3 and PM PM 2. 5 standard introduced Challenged, litigated and finally allowed to proceed in 2002 (US Supreme Court, DC District Court) May impact ground level ozone problems Mobile sources of PM 2. 5 (diesel trucks) EPA estimates standards will impact 125 Million people including 35 million children in US

Environmental factors Meteorology Wind (speed, direction, horizontal, vertical) Stability/instability (related to energy, heating/cooling of

Environmental factors Meteorology Wind (speed, direction, horizontal, vertical) Stability/instability (related to energy, heating/cooling of air masses) Inversions (represent very stable atmospheric conditions) Radiational (night, clear skies, light winds) Subsidence (high pressure systems, air sinks as layer below spreads out) Frontal (air masses of different temp meet, warm overruns cold) Precipitation (natural cleansing process, washout, rainout dissolution, absorbtion)

Controls Source Control (always the most effective) Emission Control Equipment Particulate Collectors and Separators

Controls Source Control (always the most effective) Emission Control Equipment Particulate Collectors and Separators Gaseous Collectors and Treatment Devices Dilution by Stack Height

Emission Control Equipment Removes or reduces Particulates aerosols (solid and liquid forms) gaseous byproducts

Emission Control Equipment Removes or reduces Particulates aerosols (solid and liquid forms) gaseous byproducts from various sources. Operating principles Inertial entrapment Increasing size of particles Conglomeration Liquid mist entrapment Impingement of particles on impact surfaces baffles or filters Precipitation of contaminants by electrical fields or thermal convection.

Particulate collectors and Separators Settling chambers Cyclones Sonic collectors Filters Baghouse Cloth-screen Electrostatic Precipitators

Particulate collectors and Separators Settling chambers Cyclones Sonic collectors Filters Baghouse Cloth-screen Electrostatic Precipitators Fumes, dusts, acid mists Scrubbers Wet - HCl, NOx, SO 2, particles Dry – SO 2, Fly ash

Noise Control Properties of sound Terminology physics Health hazards of noise Sources of noise

Noise Control Properties of sound Terminology physics Health hazards of noise Sources of noise

Importance of Noise Control Workplace Special concern here where hearing loss has been documented

Importance of Noise Control Workplace Special concern here where hearing loss has been documented Outdoors Inside dwellings Noise control is related to vibrations as well

Sound/Noise is unwanted sound Sound, and therefore all noise, is physically a rapid alteration

Sound/Noise is unwanted sound Sound, and therefore all noise, is physically a rapid alteration of air pressure above and below atmospheric pressure Sound at only one frequency is a pure tone Most sounds contain many frequencies

Sound/Noise Pitch of sound is determined by frequency: vibrations per second Amplitude or magnitude

Sound/Noise Pitch of sound is determined by frequency: vibrations per second Amplitude or magnitude of sound is the sound pressure Wavelength of Sound The distance that a sound wave travels in one cycle or period Formula: Wavelength (ft) = speed of sound (ft/sec) ÷ frequency (Hz – cycles/sec) λ = c/f

Sound/Noise Sound travels through Gases, liquids and solids but not through a vacuum the

Sound/Noise Sound travels through Gases, liquids and solids but not through a vacuum the speed of sound through a medium is dependent on the compressibility and density of the medium. Our own voice reaches us primarily through the bones in your head Most sounds reach us through the air and less frequently through solids and liquids Speed of sound various mediums Air – 1, 129 ft/sec (@ 69. 8 F) Water – 4, 856 ft/sec (fresh) Aluminum – 16, 897 ft/sec

Definitions Noise – unwanted sound Hearing loss Interferes with communication Cause of sleep loss

Definitions Noise – unwanted sound Hearing loss Interferes with communication Cause of sleep loss Adverse affect on human physiology Just plain annoyance

Definitions Noise pollution – condition in which noise has characteristics and duration injurious to

Definitions Noise pollution – condition in which noise has characteristics and duration injurious to public health and welfare or unreasonably interferes with the comfortable enjoyment of life and property in such areas as are affected by the noise. Ambient Noise – total noise in a given situation or environment

Definitions Noise level Weighted sound pressure level in d. BA Obtained by the uses

Definitions Noise level Weighted sound pressure level in d. BA Obtained by the uses of a ANSI approved sound level meter d. BA is decibels in the A-weighted scale which approximates the frequency response of the human ear. ANSI = American National Standards Institute

Definitions Frequency Is the number of times a complete cycle of pressure variation occurs

Definitions Frequency Is the number of times a complete cycle of pressure variation occurs in 1 second, both and elevation and depression below atmospheric pressure Frequency of sound determines its pitch Frequency is expressed in hertz (Hz), which is the metric unit for cycles per second 30 Hz very low pitch 15, 000 Hz very high pitch Young healthy ears – 20 to 20, 000 Hz Most common hearing range – 1000 to 6000 Hz Normal speech – 250 to 3000 Hz

definitions Decibel (d. B) Dimensionless unit used to express physical intensity or sound pressure

definitions Decibel (d. B) Dimensionless unit used to express physical intensity or sound pressure levels Starting or reference point for noise level measurement is 0 d. BA Threshold for pain is 120 d. BA Decibel is 1/10 a bel, a unit using common logarithms named for Alexander Graham Bell

Effects of Noise – A health hazard Environmental and workplace problem Temporary or permanent

Effects of Noise – A health hazard Environmental and workplace problem Temporary or permanent loss of hearing Affects circulatory and nervous systems which is difficult to assess Interferes with listening Disturbs sleep and relaxation Performances is reduced in work precision and reaction time Annoyance, irritation, public nuisance

Health concerns Occupational hearing loss has been documented since the 16 th century Criteria

Health concerns Occupational hearing loss has been documented since the 16 th century Criteria for hearing protection and conservation have been established primarily for the worker (OSHA) For workers a sound level over 85 d. BA is cause for study of the cause A level over 90 d. BA should be considered unsafe for daily exposure over a period of months and calls for noise reduction and hearing protection EPA report identified a 24 hr exposure level of 70 d. BA as the level of environmental noise that will prevent any measurable hearing loss over a lifetime.

Welfare concerns Levels of 55 d. BA outdoors and 45 d. BA indoors are

Welfare concerns Levels of 55 d. BA outdoors and 45 d. BA indoors are identified as Preventing annoyance Not interfering with spoken conversation and other activities Sleeping Working recreation Other effects of noise Accidents, reduced property values, absenteeism, increased costs to building construction

A-weighted decibels, abbreviated d. BA, or d. Ba, or d. B(a), are an expression

A-weighted decibels, abbreviated d. BA, or d. Ba, or d. B(a), are an expression of the relative loudness of sounds in air as perceived by the human ear. In computer systems, d. BA is often used to specify the loudness of the fan used to cool the microprocessor and associated components. Typical d. BA ratings are in the neighborhood of 25 d. BA, representing 25 Aweighted decibels above threshold of hearing. This is approximately the loudness of a person whispering in a quiet room.

Average Sound Exposure Levels Needed to Reach the Maximum Allowable Daily Dose of 100%

Average Sound Exposure Levels Needed to Reach the Maximum Allowable Daily Dose of 100% Time to reach 100% noise dose Exposure level per NIOSH REL 8 hours 85 d. B(A) 4 hours 88 d. B(A) 2 hours 91 d. B(A) 60 minutes 94 d. B(A) 30 minutes 97 d. B(A) 15 minutes 100 d. B(A)

Measurement of noise Sound level meter Measures sound pressure level Type I, III Type

Measurement of noise Sound level meter Measures sound pressure level Type I, III Type II is the most common type used by public health officials Type I is the highest quality meter A-weighted Calibration important scale is most commonly used equipment is very

Measurement of noise Noise dosimeter Measures amount of potentially injurious noise to which an

Measurement of noise Noise dosimeter Measures amount of potentially injurious noise to which an individual is exposed over a period of time. Sound Analyzer Needed to measure complex sound and sound pressure according to frequency distribution

Noise Control In general it is best to reduce the noise at the source

Noise Control In general it is best to reduce the noise at the source Some communities enforce noise regulations Community planning Locating industry, airports, superhighways outside of city limits Engineering controls on noisy equipment Think mufflers on hogs Accoustical insulation Administrative procedures Protect workers by implementing noise control and hearing protection/conservation programs Control Emission, Transmission and Reception of Noise

Federal laws & regs 1969 – US DOL issued first standards for occupational exposures

Federal laws & regs 1969 – US DOL issued first standards for occupational exposures to noise 1970 – Occupational Safety & Health Act 1970 – Federal Highway Act authorized OSHA to set occupational standards design noise levels 1972 – Noise Control Act directed EPA to promote an environment for all Americans free from noise that jeopardizes their health and welfare. EPA required to set limits on noise emission 1979 – Aviation Safety & Noise Abatement Act

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The End