- Slides: 27
What is Pollution? § Point source § Pollution: an pollution: comes unwanted change from definite source in an environment ex-smokestack caused by the introduction of § Non-point source pollution: source of harmful pollution difficult to conditions pinpoint ex- runoff from land
Primary Vs. Secondary § Primary pollutant: enters the environment as-is; already a pollutant ex: particulates from a smokestack § Secondary pollutant: reacts with other chemicals and becomes a pollutant ex: smog
Air Pollution Can be visible or invisible Anything that is in the air in quantities that are detrimental, whether from manmade or natural activities. Air pollution can travel a long distance and often affects areas where it wasn’t produced Ex- Alaska’s North Slope receives pollution from Europe and Asia due to air currents
Sulfur Oxides ( SOx): § regulated by Clean Air Act; decreasing § From burning fossil fuels: contributor to § respiratory irritant; also acid rain (combines lowers p. H of water and with water to form harms animal and sulfuric acid), plant life, structures generation of electricity (coal-fired plants), and industry
Acid Deposition § § § Sometimes called Acid Rain Has a p. H below 5. 6 It is a regional air pollution problem because cities and towns down wind of coal-burning powerplants often feel the worst affects. § Calcium Carbonate or limestone is often used to help change the p. H of soils.
Nitrogen Oxides (NOX): § fossil fuels; vehicle emissions, electricity plants, industry § acid rain contributor (forms nitric acid with water) § Clean Air Act, also decreasing § same health issues as SOx
Electrostatic Precipitation SOx and NOx are controlled in industry by “scrubbers” : systems that inject a dry reagent or slurry into a dirty exhaust stream to "wash out" acid gases, and charged plates to attract particulate matter.
Carbon Monoxide (CO): § Regulated by the Clean Air Act § vehicle emissions, construction and heavy equipment, fires, industry § poisonous, causes suffocation, aggravation of respiratory ailments
Lead (Pb) § since removed from fuels and other products like paint, levels in air have dropped dramatically § still an issue in older buildings § toxic; accumulates and damages nervous system § regulated under CAA
Ground-level Ozone Ground-level ozone: § created by chem. Rxns b/t oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in presence of sunlight § respiratory irritant; can reduce lung function and inflame the linings of the lungs § primary component of smog § reg. by CAA
Smog/Ozone § Formed when volatile organic compounds (like paint fumes) and nitrogen oxides (car exhaust) react in the presence of sunlight. § Children in high-ozone communities developed asthma at a rate three times higher than those in the low-ozone communities. (California study). § Can make those with heart and lung disease more at risk; held near ground by thermal inversions § Crop damage
Particulate Matter: also § effects: respiratory known as particle irritant, decreased lung pollution or PM function, lung disease (ex-cancer) § mixture of small solid particles and liquid droplets § made up of acid, organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles
Dust or Particulate Matter § Comes from smokestacks, farmers’ fields, construction sites, quarries, wind erosion § Reduces visibility § Small particles (< 10 μm) can be inhaled § Studies show that over a long period of time, this can cause lung damage
Pollution from fuel burning – factories, power plants, lawn mowers, BBQ grills, forest fires § CO reduces the ability of the blood to carry oxygen, effects central nervous system, causes sluggishness. § NOx contributes to ozone formation, adds nutrients to Chesapeake Bay, acid rain component. § SO 2 causes acid rain, may irritate lining of lungs.
Hazardous Air Pollutants § Approximately 188 chemicals on list, including mercury ( from coal plants) lead, formaldehyde § Causes birth defects § Cancer § Burning eyes, lungs, skin § Damage to the environment www. epa. gov/ttn/atw/allabout. html
Indoor Air Pollution Air quality in homes is also a concernaccumulations of dust, dander, mold spores, VOC’s released from furniture, carpets, paints, etc. , § as our houses become more energy efficient their air quality can decrease!
Indoor Air Pollutants § § § Radon – 222 Asbestos Formaldahyde Tobacco Smoke Carbon monoxide
Radon-222 § Naturally occurring colorless and odorless radioactive gas. § Radon is found in soil and rock surrounding a house foundation. § Long term exposure can cause lung cancer. § If detected, should be vented to outside or source sealed off
Asbestos § A material often found in older house and buildings. Used to insulate pipes, ceiling tiles, and floor tiles. § When asbestos becomes old it is known as friable. § Friable asbestos is dangerous because it can be inhaled into ones lungs and scar the lung tissue causing lung cancer.
Formaldehyde § A colorless, extremely irritating chemical. § Found in many building materials such as plywood, particleboard, paneling, furniture, drapes, adhesives in carpeting.
Tobacco Smoke and Carbon Monoxide § Cigarettes § Cause lung cancer, respiratory ailments, heart disease. § Carbon Monoxide is caused by faulty furnaces, unvented gas stoves and kerosene heaters and wood stoves that don’t burn efficiently.
Regulations to Protect the Air § Industrial Revolution created soot, smoke and other pollutants which caused health problems and many deaths. § Local jurisdictions were responsible for regulating pollution. § 1970 the newly formed Environmental Protection Agency was tasked with the Clean Air Act.
Clean Air Act § § Sets standards for air quality (NAAQS) Based on health studies Protects the most sensitive people Requires new sources to use pollution controls § Older sources will eventually get phased out (in theory) § Major sources must show no impact or must reduce pollutants if modifying or expanding
What can you do to reduce air pollution? § § § Carpool or reduce trips Do not let your car idle Use water-based paints, low-VOC solvents Consider hybrid cars Conserve electricity Recycle goods No open burning Maintain heaters/AC Use hand tools for yard work Buy low-energy appliances Insulate your home