AIR POLLUTION OSH 320 AIR POLLUTION CONCENTRATIONS FACTORS

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AIR POLLUTION OSH 320

AIR POLLUTION OSH 320

AIR POLLUTION CONCENTRATIONS: FACTORS

AIR POLLUTION CONCENTRATIONS: FACTORS

THERMAL INVERSION • Air temperature gradually increases with altitude • Disperses pollutants by hot

THERMAL INVERSION • Air temperature gradually increases with altitude • Disperses pollutants by hot air rising from the ground • Sometimes this is reverse • Air decreases with altitude and then increases • Air pollution is trapped

RADIATION INVERSION • Heat radiates from the Earth’s surface at night • Earth serves

RADIATION INVERSION • Heat radiates from the Earth’s surface at night • Earth serves as a radiator • The ground air layer next to it cool off quicker than air above • Air above this layer creates a lid of warm air • Air pollution is trapped at ground level

SUBSIDENCE INVERSION • Warm, high pressure air mass stalls over an area & sinks

SUBSIDENCE INVERSION • Warm, high pressure air mass stalls over an area & sinks • Last longer than radiation inversions • Can form over several states • More of an issue in the summer along the coast

DUST DOME • Larger cities • Haze of smoke and dust (umbrella) • Unique

DUST DOME • Larger cities • Haze of smoke and dust (umbrella) • Unique circulation of air patterns • Air is warmer in the city compared to rural areas • “Heat Island” • “Dust plume”

CAUSES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURES • People • Industrial furnaces • Utility Boilers • Paved

CAUSES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURES • People • Industrial furnaces • Utility Boilers • Paved roads/parking lots

RURAL AREA TEMPERATURE REDUCTION • Evaporative cooling due to vegetation • Less people

RURAL AREA TEMPERATURE REDUCTION • Evaporative cooling due to vegetation • Less people

PRECIPITATION • Local climate is influenced primarily by particulates • Condensation nuclei • Small

PRECIPITATION • Local climate is influenced primarily by particulates • Condensation nuclei • Small particles that absorb moisture • Cause cloud formation • Cities downwind experience precipitation • More rain M-F • Chicago---La Porte, IN • Paris, France 31% higher rainfall on weekdays

DECREASED AVERAGE TEMPERATURE • Increase particulates block out sunlight • 1883 Volcano on the

DECREASED AVERAGE TEMPERATURE • Increase particulates block out sunlight • 1883 Volcano on the Dutch East Indies erupted • Over a period of years the particles circled the globe several times • U. S. experience cooling • Boston had snow in June

AIR POLLUTION DISASTERS • They occur in densely populated areas • They occur in

AIR POLLUTION DISASTERS • They occur in densely populated areas • They occur in heavily industrialized centers • Accompanied by fog • They are accompanied by thermal inversion

THE DONORA DISASTER • Occurred in 1948 near Pittsburg, PA • Home to factories

THE DONORA DISASTER • Occurred in 1948 near Pittsburg, PA • Home to factories that manufacture steel, wire, sulfuric acid & zinc • Thermal inversion occurred • A fog closed in on the valley

THE DONORA DISASTER CONT. • Blanket of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and hydrocarbons blanketed

THE DONORA DISASTER CONT. • Blanket of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and hydrocarbons blanketed the air • High School football game was cancelled due to several players getting ill • Motorist had to pull of the side of the road the haze • 43% of the population became ill (5, 910)

CHRONIC HEALTH EFFECTS • Chronic Bronchitis • Emphysema • Lung Cancer • Asbestosis •

CHRONIC HEALTH EFFECTS • Chronic Bronchitis • Emphysema • Lung Cancer • Asbestosis • CO poisoning

CHRONIC BRONCHITIS • Persistent mucous build up • Cough • Exposure of sulfur and

CHRONIC BRONCHITIS • Persistent mucous build up • Cough • Exposure of sulfur and nitrogen dioxide • Urban pollution & cigarette smoke contains the same chemicals

EMPHYSEMA • Breakdown of alveoli • Air passes into the sacs to have access

EMPHYSEMA • Breakdown of alveoli • Air passes into the sacs to have access to the blood stream • Pollutants that cause emphysema • Sulfur dioxide • Nitrogen dioxide • Ozone

LUNG CANCER • Carcinogens • Air pollution in combination results in a synergistic effect

LUNG CANCER • Carcinogens • Air pollution in combination results in a synergistic effect • Higher populated areas, increased risk

ABESTOSIS • 1986 Congressed passed the Abestos Hazard Emergency Response Act • Inspection of

ABESTOSIS • 1986 Congressed passed the Abestos Hazard Emergency Response Act • Inspection of schools required • EPA regulations have helped control occupational exposures • 1970’s many products eliminated from production

GLOBAL WARMING SPEECH

GLOBAL WARMING SPEECH

CONTROLLING PARTICULATES • Bag house filters • Asbestos • Lead • Dust • Physically

CONTROLLING PARTICULATES • Bag house filters • Asbestos • Lead • Dust • Physically remove airborne particles form smoke stacks • 99. 99% of particulates can be removed

SMOG HOG

SMOG HOG

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR • Removes small diameter particles • Commonly seen in coal-fired power plants

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR • Removes small diameter particles • Commonly seen in coal-fired power plants • Pollutants pass through positively and negatively charged electrodes • Will shut down periodically to allow dust particles to fall • Can contain toxic heavy metals

CYCLONE FILTERS • Heavy dust particles • Gravity and a downward-spiraling air stream •

CYCLONE FILTERS • Heavy dust particles • Gravity and a downward-spiraling air stream • Air full of particulates strike against walls and fall to the bottom of the cylinder

CONTROLLING SULFUR OXIDE • Shift from high-to-low sulfur coal • Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and

CONTROLLING SULFUR OXIDE • Shift from high-to-low sulfur coal • Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Illinois • Before 1970’s • Some companies continued • Early 1990’s many companies switched to low-sulfur coal to avoid pollution control devices

LOW-SULFUR COAL • Located in the western states • Colorado, Montana, and Wyoming •

LOW-SULFUR COAL • Located in the western states • Colorado, Montana, and Wyoming • Strip mining was the only way to reach it • Costly reclamation efforts must be taken to restore the land back to it’s original state • Costly transportation

COAL STRIPPING OPERATION

COAL STRIPPING OPERATION

COAL CLEANING • Mine high-sulfur coal and remove sulfur prior to burning • Contains

COAL CLEANING • Mine high-sulfur coal and remove sulfur prior to burning • Contains impurity called iron pyrite (Fool’s Gold) • Tank mixes pulverized coal and water • Iron pyrite is heavier than coal

SCRUBBING • Removing sulfur from smoke stacks • Power plants and factories • A

SCRUBBING • Removing sulfur from smoke stacks • Power plants and factories • A mist consisting of ground limestone and water is sprayed into the smoke stacks • Calcium in the limestone reacts with the sulfur • Forms calcium sulfate

SCRUBBERS CONT. • 95% effective • Calcium sulfate may be used in rock beds

SCRUBBERS CONT. • 95% effective • Calcium sulfate may be used in rock beds and dry wall • Most goes to the landfill • Can be added to existing plants • Costly • Produce toxic sludge

SCRUBBER

SCRUBBER

AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS • Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, particulates, and VOCs

AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS • Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, particulates, and VOCs

CATALYTIC CONVERTERS • Muffler shaped device incorporated into the exhaust system • Cells are

CATALYTIC CONVERTERS • Muffler shaped device incorporated into the exhaust system • Cells are honeycomb shape • Honeycomb cells are coated with a catalyst (+chemical reactions) • CO & VOCs react with catalyst & convert to carbon dioxide and water • Doesn’t remove nitrogen oxides • Three way catalytic convertors (81’)

INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE PROGRAM • Automobile emissions are checked annually • Minor adjustments made

INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE PROGRAM • Automobile emissions are checked annually • Minor adjustments made if needed to fuel injection system (spark plugs, etc. ) • Portland, OR started the program and reduced emissions by 40% in one year

INCREASED FUEL EFFICIENCY • 1975 Federal law placed to put a tax on all

INCREASED FUEL EFFICIENCY • 1975 Federal law placed to put a tax on all cars not meeting specifications • “Gas-guzzler” tax • Lamborgini-6 miles/gallon • Clinton repealed law in 1996

VOLKSWAGEN CRISIS

VOLKSWAGEN CRISIS

MANAGING OR REDUCING TRAFFIC VOLUME • Traffic lights on ramps in big cities help

MANAGING OR REDUCING TRAFFIC VOLUME • Traffic lights on ramps in big cities help with traffic flow • Termination of free parking in cities • Placing an added tax on downtown parking fees • Prohibiting commuters to driving to one day a week to reduce commuter traffic • Free bus passes issued by businesses or universities

NEW YORK CITY • Bans all street parking in major business settings in Manhattan

NEW YORK CITY • Bans all street parking in major business settings in Manhattan • Restricts cruising of taxis • Has placed several bridges on a toll system • Set aside one lane on busy roads for exclusive use of buses

REPLACING GASOLINE • Replacing gasoline with ethanol • Use of renewable resource • Produces

REPLACING GASOLINE • Replacing gasoline with ethanol • Use of renewable resource • Produces less air pollution • It is still not a zero carbon fuel (farming) • Can reduce global warming • Contains 30% less fuel than gasoline • Use of switch grass and plant materials-future

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES • Since the Clean Air Act was introduced, hydrocarbon and carbon

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES • Since the Clean Air Act was introduced, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions reduced by 90% & nitrogen oxides were reduced by 70% • We have an increase on amount of motor vehicles now

ELECTRIC CARS • Pollutant free (100 -150 mpg equivalent) • They still require electricity

ELECTRIC CARS • Pollutant free (100 -150 mpg equivalent) • They still require electricity • Lead batteries which are bulky • Can go 60 -100 miles before recharging • Newer lithium-ion batteries go 220 miles between charges

HYBRID CARS • Electric engine and internal combustion • Prius 40 -50 mpg •

HYBRID CARS • Electric engine and internal combustion • Prius 40 -50 mpg • Some hybrids revert to gas on trips over 60 miles • Amory Lovins

INDOOR AIR POLLUTION • Gas ranges/furnaces • Tobacco smoke • New carpet • Paint

INDOOR AIR POLLUTION • Gas ranges/furnaces • Tobacco smoke • New carpet • Paint • Hairspray/perfume

WHY WORRY ABOUT INDOOR AIR QUALITY • Most our time is spent indoors •

WHY WORRY ABOUT INDOOR AIR QUALITY • Most our time is spent indoors • Houses are more tightly insulated • Paints, cabinets and carpet back release VOC’s/formaldehyde • Latex paint releases mercury • “Out gassing”

FORMALDEHYDE • Carpets • Particle board • Foam insulation • Plywood • Furniture

FORMALDEHYDE • Carpets • Particle board • Foam insulation • Plywood • Furniture

FORMALDEHYDE RISKS • Eye Irritation • Nausea • Respiratory Issues • Cancer • OSHA

FORMALDEHYDE RISKS • Eye Irritation • Nausea • Respiratory Issues • Cancer • OSHA PEL=3 ppm TLV=. 3 ppm

CANCER RISK WITH MOBILE HOMES • Relatively small air volume • Poor air circulation

CANCER RISK WITH MOBILE HOMES • Relatively small air volume • Poor air circulation • Relatively large amounts of materials with formaldehyde • Particle board

RADON • Gas produced by uranium • Natural decay release radon gas (radioactive) •

RADON • Gas produced by uranium • Natural decay release radon gas (radioactive) • Found in rocks and soil • Radon will quickly disperse in open air

RADON PROPERTIES • Odorless • Tasteless • Colorless

RADON PROPERTIES • Odorless • Tasteless • Colorless

INSIDE HOMES • Radon gas decays to form lead and polonium • Radon will

INSIDE HOMES • Radon gas decays to form lead and polonium • Radon will decay in lungs and deposit lead • Genetic mutation of surrounding cells can lead to cancer • EPA estimates 20, 000 -30, 000 lung cancer deaths each yr. due to radon • Accounts for 55% of all radioactive exposure

HIGH RISK AREAS • Pennsylvania, New York and New Jersey • One home in

HIGH RISK AREAS • Pennsylvania, New York and New Jersey • One home in PA had a reading of 675 times acceptable exposure to uranium • Risk was compared to smoking 220 packs of cigarettes a day

LOWERING YOUR RISK • Sealing cracks in the floor & walls • Sub-slab depressurization

LOWERING YOUR RISK • Sealing cracks in the floor & walls • Sub-slab depressurization • Plastic layer over the ground beneath your house if on block • Average cost to fix radon issue sis typically between $500$2, 500

FACTS ON RADON http: //chfs. ky. gov/dph/info/phps/radongas. htm • Radon detection kits

FACTS ON RADON http: //chfs. ky. gov/dph/info/phps/radongas. htm • Radon detection kits

CONTROLLING INDOOR AIR POLLUTION • Eliminate • Tile instead of carpet • Isolate •

CONTROLLING INDOOR AIR POLLUTION • Eliminate • Tile instead of carpet • Isolate • Sealing subflooring before installing • Ventilate • Energy recovery ventilator