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Air Pollution and Haze Disaster
Air Pollution We lead Definition: • Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful gases into the atmosphere, causing diseases, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the natural or built environment
Outdoor Air Pollution Sources We lead
Indoor Air Pollution Sources We lead
Major Pollutants We lead Category Agriculture or Haze Mining and quarrying Industries Source Open burning Coal mining Food, beverages and tobacco Emitted pollutants SPM, CO, VOC SPM, SO 2, NOx, VOC SPM, CO, VOC, H 2 S Textiles and leather industries SPM, VOC Wood products Paper products, printing SPM, VOC SPM, SO 2, CO, VOC, H 2 S, R-SH Petroleum refineries Chemicals Miscellaneous products of petroleum and coal SPM, SO 2, CO, VOC SPM, SO 2, NOx, CO, VOC Transport Automobile vehicle exhaust NOx, CO 2 , PM, Hydrocarbons Power generation Electricity, gas and steam SPM, SO 2, NOx, CO, VOC, SO 3, Pb Indoor Printing machines, Building Materials VOC, HCHO, O 3, biological contaminants, CO, CO 2
Deaths due to Pollution We lead
What is HAZE ? We lead • HAZE : HAZE is caused by particulate matter from many sources including smoke, road dust, and other particles emitted directly into the atmosphere, as well as particulate matter formed when gaseous pollutants react in the atmosphere. These particles often grow in size as humidity increases, further impairing VISIBILITY. • HAZE pollution can be “transboundary” if its density and extent is so great at source that it remains at measurable levels after crossing into another country’s air space.
Causes- 1. Forest Fire We lead
Causes- 2. Agricultural Waste Burning We lead
Causes- 3. Land-clearing fires We lead
Causes- 4. Disposal of wood waste • We lead Palm oil company builds windrows but continues to use or allow fire to burn slash before planting palm oil.
Causes- 5. Solid Waste Burning We lead
Why Does Haze Happen in Indonesia? We lead • • • Cannot afford mechanical land-clearing-Fire is traditional tool No other means to dispose of wood No fear of prosecution Ineffective Fire Detection Systems Ineffective Response Systems Normal Dry Season (1 – 2 times a year) and/or Severe Extended Dry Season Increased – Prone for Forest and Land Fires
Three Types of Haze We lead Under stagnant air mass conditions, aerosols can be "trapped" Visibility Impairment: generally associated with discoloration, haziness, and loss of color and detail. Plume: Pollutants are constrained in a tight elevated layer that can often be traced to a nearby source. Uniform Haze: Pollutants are uniformly distributed Layered Haze: Pollutants are often trapped near from the ground to a height well above the highest terrain feature. the ground beneath a temperature inversion. The top edge of the pollutant layer is visible.
Haze & Visibility Particles and gases in the atmosphere can scatter or redirect imageforming light as it travels to the eye. Through scattering, some image-forming light is removed from the view path. In addition, extra light, sunlight, and light reflected from the clouds and ground are added to the sight path, which interferes with the ability to view the scene. Scattering We lead Another cause of visibility impairment is absorption. Particles and gases in the atmosphere absorb or remove image-forming light before it ever reaches the viewer’s eye. Although significant, absorption usually is less important than scattering processes when we talk about visibility impairment. Absorption
How Pollutants Cause Haze We lead Extinction is a visibility metric used to describe the combined effect of scattering and absorption. It is proportional to the total amount of light removed as light passes through the atmosphere and is related to the concentration of pollutants.
Parameters Describing Visual Air Quality. It is directly related to perceived changes in visibility. As haziness increases, so does the deciview value. A one deciview change represents a 10 percent change in extinction. Most people can perceive a one deciview change. Deciview is an index of haziness that expresses changes in scene quality 1. Visual Range 2. Extinction 3. Deciview We lead
Five Types of particles that Reduce Visibility We lead Although particulate matter is made up of many chemical species, there are five key contributors to visibility impairment. Primary Pollutants are emitted directly into the atmosphere, and include: 1. Sulfur Dioxide 2. Nitrogen Oxides 3. Elemental Carbon 4. Organic Compounds 5. Soil or Dust Secondary Pollutants form chemical reactions involving primary gas emissions (precursors), and include: 1. Ammonium Sulfate 2. Ammonium Nitrate 3. Organic compounds
Sources of particles that Reduce Visibility We lead Carbon Element Nitrates Sulfates Organics Soils
Short Term Solution to address Haze at Origin We lead Fire Management (Origin) • • • Sent emergency response team for fire management and rescue the victims Provide Utilities to Victims Use forecasting technology and advise Forest Department -to create buffer zones at affected area to reduce the spread, to alert publics Voluntary services from USM -healthcare center team to treat victims Use advanced technology devices (UAV) to monitor the spread and also provide healthcare utilities at rural area Damage Assessment (Economy, Health & Ecology)
Short Term Solution to address Haze at Receptor We lead • Activation of Communication Network- Apps Technology (Warning, Information, Instruction) for public • Voluntary services at healthcare center to get utilities and treatment • Implementing Control Strategies (No outdoor activities, Health practices Technology Adoption Indoor) • Damage Assessment (Economy &Health)
Long Term Solution –(Origin/ Receptor) Engineering, Education, Enforcement • Multi-stakeholder involvement - concerted, committed action Government q q q Consistent enforcement of existing laws Develop alternative land preparation methods (no fire) Legislation & market opportunity to utilize waste wood Investment in effective fire response systems Investment in R&D for Air Pollution related technology We lead
Long Term Solution –(Origin/ Receptor) Engineering, Education, Enforcement Businesses q Sustainable management of forest resources NGOs, Media, Communities Grassroots education, training & awareness to promote environmental awareness among all sections of the society q Zero burning concept q Promoting the use of clean alternative and renewable energy. q Transportation- reduce Sulphur content to 500 to 50 ppm & q Traffic Planning-Promote Public transportation q Reduce Emission from Industrial Sector-adoption of new technology q We lead
We lead Create economically viable options for the use of wood from legal land-clearing q Develop new market opportunities for use of wood that is otherwise burned
Collaborators & Policy Makers We lead National: • NIOSH • Malaysian Department of Environment (DOE) • Other Institute in Malaysia-UKM Institute of Climate Change • Weather Department • Majlis Keselamatan Negara Regional: • ASEAN co-operation on environment International: • World Health Organization • International Union of Air Pollution Prevention and Environmental Protection Associations
Air Pollution Group Research Proposal We lead Forecasting Technology & Assessment Health Assessment Integrated Technology to implement indoor control strategy
Forecasting Technology & Assessment We lead Early warning system • Collecting API data (5 -10 years) from the nearest Asian countries from the meteorology station and DOE to simulate the impact level (Aerospace Eng. Dr Parvathy Rajendran & Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Zulkifli Bin Abdullah). • Increase the Regional data collection, do trend analysis and air quality modeling (Prof Noor Azam & Prof Rahmat Awang) • advanced technologies in remote sensing, digital mapping, and instantaneous communications to predict, detect, and respond to potential crises-enforcement of Law
Integrated Technology for Indoor We lead Implement of Indoor Control Strategy (5 teams are identified-Materials, Chemical and Electrical Eng) • Electrostatic Technology- Prof Zainal • Photocatalyst- Prof Srimala & Dr Vignesh • Super hydrophobic Filter- Dr Leo • Adsorption using activated Carbon- Prof Rahman • Green Plant –Dr. Irvan
Health Assessment We lead Monitoring and Health Assessment (School of Medical Sciences-Dr. Ahmad Filza & Team) • Hazard identification • Exposure assessment • Dose response assessment • Risk characterization
Gaps in Analysis We lead Strength: • Proven technologies at chemical and materials engineering that could be integrated to address indoor air pollution • Apps technology from computer science for reporting and sharing information • Have a team from the school of medical sciences to do health assessment • Have a team from civil and aerospace engineering for environmental data monitoring and imaging Weakness: • No early warning system • No comprehensive data sharing from the monitoring station closest to disaster location • No team members from economics for cost benefit analysis • No sustainable outdoor technology • Don’t have collaboration with policy makers
Acknowledgement All the team members q q q q Prof. Dr. Rahman Prof. Dr. Zainal Arifin Ahamad Prof. Dr. Nor Azam Prof. Dr. Rahmat Awang Prof. Dr. Mohd Zulkifli Dr. Parvathy Rajendran Dr. Noor Faizah Dr. Ahmad Filza Dr. Leo Choe Peng Dr. Irvan Dahlan Dr. Vignesh Ms. Norhusia Mohamed Ms. Sahareen Binti We lead
We lead THANK YOU