Agriculture Unit 5 Agriculture Importance Everyone of Agriculture

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Agriculture Unit 5

Agriculture Unit 5

Agriculture Importance Everyone of Agriculture dependent on food Agriculture occupies more land area than

Agriculture Importance Everyone of Agriculture dependent on food Agriculture occupies more land area than any other econ activity Agriculture employs 45% - almost half of world’s labor (in Africa and Asia over 50% are farmers) W/out Agriculture you could not have any cities or urban areas

Agriculture practices = one of the most fundamental differences between MDCs and LDCs Big

Agriculture practices = one of the most fundamental differences between MDCs and LDCs Big Questions…. Where is Agriculture distributed across the earth? How does farming vary around the globe? Why does farming vary across the globe?

Origins of Agriculture : purposeful modification of earth’s surface to plant crops or raise

Origins of Agriculture : purposeful modification of earth’s surface to plant crops or raise livestock for human sustenance Agriculture began when humans domesticated plants and animals for use Origins history of Agriculture predate recorded human

Origins of Agriculture Before Agriculture = Hunter/gatherer societies follow game and seasonal growth

Origins of Agriculture Before Agriculture = Hunter/gatherer societies follow game and seasonal growth

1 st Agriculture Revolution @ 10, 000 yrs ago – late 18 th C.

1 st Agriculture Revolution @ 10, 000 yrs ago – late 18 th C. Domestication – conscious manipulation of plants/animals Invention of Agriculture evolved slowly and over time through accident and experimentation 1 st revolution shifted people from hunt/gather to semisedentary

1 st Agriculture Revolution Carl Sauer – expert on 1 st Revolution Occurred in

1 st Agriculture Revolution Carl Sauer – expert on 1 st Revolution Occurred in time of plenty, not famine Multiple hearths occurred independently in several places Seed cultivation in Fertile Crescent (Iraq) - @ 10, 000 years ago Yams in hill country of SE Asia @ 10, 000 years ago Root crops & corn in Mesoamerica (Mayans) @ 5, 000 years ago Likely discovered by women by accident

1 st Agriculture Revolution – Agriculture Diffusion: spread by relocation - migration & colonialism

1 st Agriculture Revolution – Agriculture Diffusion: spread by relocation - migration & colonialism (Columbian Exchange) Today diffusion is hierarchical – starts in research centers of MDCs moves to smaller farms or LDCs Diffusion can be bad/accidental (ex: kudzu = the vine that ate the South)

Agriculture Diffusion – Columbian Exchange – relocation diffusion

Agriculture Diffusion – Columbian Exchange – relocation diffusion

Agriculture Diffusion Accidental kudzu

Agriculture Diffusion Accidental kudzu

2 nd Agriculture Revolution Began in W. Europe in 1600 s – transformed W.

2 nd Agriculture Revolution Began in W. Europe in 1600 s – transformed W. Europe and N. America Intensified Agriculture by promoting higher yields per acre and per farmer Used crop rotation, fertilizers, improved collars for draft animals Farmers create surplus, people can live in cities and buy Agriculture products at market Move from rural to urban

2 nd Agriculture revolution – Late 1700 s = Industrial Revolution – mechanization Tractors,

2 nd Agriculture revolution – Late 1700 s = Industrial Revolution – mechanization Tractors, reapers, threshers replaced human labor Better transportation – RR, steamboats, refrigerated cars, etc. allows farmers to ship food products further to urban markets

2 nd Agriculture Revolution – Transportation Revolutions – increase market area for farmers’ produce

2 nd Agriculture Revolution – Transportation Revolutions – increase market area for farmers’ produce

3 rd Agriculture Revolution = Green Revolution 1940 s-1960 s MDCs transfer technology to

3 rd Agriculture Revolution = Green Revolution 1940 s-1960 s MDCs transfer technology to LDCs Main practices: Artificial fertilizer Irrigation Insecticides and pesticides Mechanical machinery Crossbreeding/hybridization (naturally not in a lab) …. all produce higher yields

3 rd Revolution - Green Revolution Multinational Corp encourage LDCs to focus on specialty

3 rd Revolution - Green Revolution Multinational Corp encourage LDCs to focus on specialty crops – monoculture for export instead of producing food for local consumption Was successful in some LDCs but detrimental in others (new tech devastated land, bad for environment, unsustainable farming, and changes in social and culture structures

Today and the Future…. . High tech – Agriculture and Agribusiness Computerized irrigation, remote

Today and the Future…. . High tech – Agriculture and Agribusiness Computerized irrigation, remote sensing, long-term weather predictions, GMO’s GMOs: genetically modified foods – genes altered in a lab for disease resistance, increased productivity, increased nutritional value BIG debate…U. S. pro – feed developing world; Europe anti – Franken food

GMOs

GMOs

Today and Future…. Agribusiness: multinational giant corporations dominate much of world’s Agriculture market demise

Today and Future…. Agribusiness: multinational giant corporations dominate much of world’s Agriculture market demise of family farm Agriculture is BIG, expensive business (control land, tech, machinery, shipping, packaging, etc. ) Globalization of Agriculture : free trade, WTO

Geographers looks at WHAT crops are produced around the globe…. affected by……. Environment: (Environmental

Geographers looks at WHAT crops are produced around the globe…. affected by……. Environment: (Environmental Determinism)…rice needs lots of water, grapes need cool wet winters and hot dry summers, etc. Possibilism…green houses, irrigation Culture: rice in Asia, corn in Mexico, wheat in US/Europe, no pork in Middle East, etc.

What crops produced where… Economic: grow crop that makes greatest profit (von Thunen (We’ll

What crops produced where… Economic: grow crop that makes greatest profit (von Thunen (We’ll get to him later))

Geographers looks at HOW crops grown Labor intensive lots of people and few tools

Geographers looks at HOW crops grown Labor intensive lots of people and few tools versus Capital Intensive little human labor, but tools, machinery Intensive Agriculture greater yields off smaller areas (future of farming as Agriculture land is lost versus Extensive Agriculture needs lots of land, not efficient (wide spread ranching)

HOW crops grown Intensive/extensive and capital intensive/labor intensive spectrums are independent of each other….

HOW crops grown Intensive/extensive and capital intensive/labor intensive spectrums are independent of each other…. . examples? Subsistence Agriculture(LDCs) versus Commercial Agriculture (MDCs) …see handout

Agriculture Regions in LDCs Shiftng Cultivation: in rainforests Slash and Burn: clear land by

Agriculture Regions in LDCs Shiftng Cultivation: in rainforests Slash and Burn: clear land by slashing vegetation and burning debris Swidden: Land land that’s been cleared for farming often owned by village not individual. Cannot support dense populations Soil depletes rapidly…leads to deforestation

Agriculture Regions in LDCs 2. ) Pastoral Nomadism – nomadic herders Dry mountain regions

Agriculture Regions in LDCs 2. ) Pastoral Nomadism – nomadic herders Dry mountain regions of Africa and Asia where harsh climate prevent plants Herders cover wide area searching for food for herd Transhumance – seasonal migration Use animals - food, clothing, milk, skins Type of animal varies depending on culture and physical region (i. e. camel, sheep, goat, horse, etc. )

Agriculture Regions in LDCs Intensive Subsistence High yield for small area of land Densely

Agriculture Regions in LDCs Intensive Subsistence High yield for small area of land Densely pop areas of Asia Often w/ wet rice in Asia W/ wheat and barley in India and China Double cropping – 2 crops/harvests per year Crop Rotation – preserves soil nutrients

Agriculture Regions in LDCs Plantation Farming Found in tropics/subtropics Large farm specializes in 1

Agriculture Regions in LDCs Plantation Farming Found in tropics/subtropics Large farm specializes in 1 -2 cash crops (coffee, sugar, cotton) Often controlled/owned by MDC Labor comes from LDC Crops exported for sale, not sold locally

Agriculture Regions in MDCs Mixed Crop/Livestock Farming Western N. America, S. America, Australia Integrate

Agriculture Regions in MDCs Mixed Crop/Livestock Farming Western N. America, S. America, Australia Integrate crops and livestock – crops (soybeans and corn) fed to animals Employ crop rotation

Agriculture Regions in MDCs Dairying: Near large urban areas (NE United States, SE Canada,

Agriculture Regions in MDCs Dairying: Near large urban areas (NE United States, SE Canada, NW Europe) Close to city b/c product perishable (especially milk…cheese & butter can come from further away) Milk Shed how far out can supply milk w/out spoiling These farms are expensive and labor intensive

Agriculture Regions in MDCs Grain Farming: wheat, corn, barley, oats, millet grains grown for

Agriculture Regions in MDCs Grain Farming: wheat, corn, barley, oats, millet grains grown for human consumption Sale to manufacturers for food production (cereal, bread, flour) US – by far greatest exporter of grain (Great Plains = bread basket)

Agriculture Regions in MDCs Livestock Ranching: Commercial grazing of livestock (cattle – beef) over

Agriculture Regions in MDCs Livestock Ranching: Commercial grazing of livestock (cattle – beef) over extensive areas Big in western US (i. e. ranchers) and Argentina – semiarid areas

Agriculture Regions in MDCs Mediterranean Agriculture Mediterranean climates of W. Europe, CA, Chile Variety

Agriculture Regions in MDCs Mediterranean Agriculture Mediterranean climates of W. Europe, CA, Chile Variety of fruits and vegetables for human consumption – olives, grapes, avocadoes, nuts, etc. Olives and grapes = most valuable cash crops…. . olive oil and wine

Agriculture Regions in MDCs Truck Farming – commercial gardening and fruit farming American SE

Agriculture Regions in MDCs Truck Farming – commercial gardening and fruit farming American SE – long growing season and humid Apples, tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, cherries, etc. “Truck” was a word for barter and these items were originally produced for local markets…today produced for large scale food processors

Issues for Commercial Farmers Access to markets – distance from market influences crop choice

Issues for Commercial Farmers Access to markets – distance from market influences crop choice Von Thunen’s Model 19 th C Germany Noticed lands w/ same physical geography were being used for different Agriculture products Farmers consider 2 costs – land transporting goods to market Land cost most expensive near market & decreases w/ distance

Von Thunen – cont’d Products w/ intensive land use, high transportation costs, and in

Von Thunen – cont’d Products w/ intensive land use, high transportation costs, and in high demand located near market (i. e. highly perishable items, bulky heavy items…. dairy, fruits, veggies). These generate higher prices and farmers can afford more expensive land nearest market

Von Thunen – cont’d Products in less demand, w/ more extensive land use or

Von Thunen – cont’d Products in less demand, w/ more extensive land use or cheaper to transport are found further from market where land is cheaper (ranching, mixed farming, orchards) Formula – can farmer make profit? P= V – (E + T) Profit = commodity value – (production cost + transportation cost)

Von Thunen – cont’d The 1. model = concentric rings coming out of market

Von Thunen – cont’d The 1. model = concentric rings coming out of market nearest, perishable items diff to transport (berries, milk, tomatoes) 2. forestry – wood heavy and difficult to transport 3. mixed farming – pigs, poultry 4. wheat, barley, grains, livestock

Von Thunen Model

Von Thunen Model

Contemporary Variables of the Model? Modern transportation more efficient Transportation costs no longer proportional

Contemporary Variables of the Model? Modern transportation more efficient Transportation costs no longer proportional to distance Wood (#2 forestry) no longer needed for fuel Technology has decreased permissibility (refrigerated cars, canning, etc. ) Model still relevant today? ? ?

Issues for Commercial Farmers OVERPRODUCION Tech allows farmers to produce more than demanded (too

Issues for Commercial Farmers OVERPRODUCION Tech allows farmers to produce more than demanded (too much product, not enough profit) Ex: US government pays 4 bill in cotton subsidies, farmers make 3 bill off crop Subsidies: government pays to produce less – spends @ 10 bill annually Government also buys surplus and donates to foreign countries

Issues for Subsistence Farmers 1. ) rapidly increasing pop – must feed more people

Issues for Subsistence Farmers 1. ) rapidly increasing pop – must feed more people on same land (GMOs? ) 2. ) Trying to grow food for export for development and not just for consumption Strategies…. Expand land areas and increase productivity of land already in use Identify new food sources When there is surplus, export, to bring in $$$

Future of Farming…. . Intensive Agriculture is replacing Extensive Agriculture…generate more food on smaller

Future of Farming…. . Intensive Agriculture is replacing Extensive Agriculture…generate more food on smaller plots of land Ex: Feedlots: concentrate raising livestock in smaller space and use hormones and other fattening grains to prepare cattle for slaughter at a more rapid pace and in a smaller space

Future of Farming…. Biotechnology – techniques to modify living organism and improve plant and

Future of Farming…. Biotechnology – techniques to modify living organism and improve plant and animal species and production (GMOs) Agribusiness: includes food production, canning, refining, packing, etc. Little farmer goes out of business Transnational Corporations – profit goes to company Can get any fruit/fresh produce all over the globe at any time of year

Agriculture and the Environment Negative impacts on Environment Pesticides (DDT) harm wildlife, pollute lakes,

Agriculture and the Environment Negative impacts on Environment Pesticides (DDT) harm wildlife, pollute lakes, rivers, etc. Erosion – loss of fertile topsoil – fertile topsoil accumulates slowly takes hundreds of years to rebuild Salinization: soil in dry area is irrigated, water evaporates quickly and leaves salty residue Urban Sprawl: takes over good agricultural land

Agriculture and the Environment Deforestation: slash and burn in rainforests (debt for nature swap

Agriculture and the Environment Deforestation: slash and burn in rainforests (debt for nature swap – see article) Desertification: degradation of land…turns into desert b/c of extensive planting or grazing Conclusion…. greater tech often correlates w/ destruction of environment

RESOURCES Natural Resources: Renewable: resources w/ a theoretically unlimited supply…environment continues to replace them

RESOURCES Natural Resources: Renewable: resources w/ a theoretically unlimited supply…environment continues to replace them (i. e. soil, timber). Note – we can use renewable resources faster than they can reproduce themselves Nonrenewable: cannot be replaced by nature; a finite supply that will be exhausted (minerals, coal, oil, copper)

Fishing Accounts for 20% of human and animal protein consumption (higher in some countries)

Fishing Accounts for 20% of human and animal protein consumption (higher in some countries) 3 Sources: Inland catch – ponds, lakes – 7% Fish Farms – controlled/contained environment – 32% Marine catch – oceans – continental shelf – 100 miles out – 61%

Fishing Problems…. Over fishing – catch is surpassing reproduction rates – endangered supplies. Tragedy

Fishing Problems…. Over fishing – catch is surpassing reproduction rates – endangered supplies. Tragedy of the Commons oceans = open seas, communal property, all take too much Pollution of coastal waters Aquaculture: fish farming – breed fish in ponds, lakes, canals, or fenced off in coastal bays Accounts for 30% of total fish harvest in recent years Fastest growing sector of world economy