- Slides: 10
Aggression: Hurting Others
What is Aggression? • Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone, intentionally inflicting harm. – One can be socially assertive (self-assured, energetic, go-getter) without being aggressive • Excludes: auto accidents, dental treatments, sidewalk collisions, & assisted suicide.
Types of Aggression • Hostile aggression: aggression driven by emotions & performed as an end in itself (intends to injure). – Example: Murders , revenge, pushing someone you don’t like or are mad at • Instrumental aggression: aggression that is a means to some other end. – Example: Terrorism, cool & calculated, pushing someone to be first in line
Theories of Aggression • Is aggression biological? – Instinct theory: aggressive energy is innate, unlearned, & universal (exhibited by all members of a species). – Neural influences: stimulation of the human amygdala results in increased aggression. – Genetic influences: predisposed neural sensitivity – Biochemical influences: role of serotonin & testosterone, alcohol
Theories of Aggression • Is aggression a response to frustration? – Frustration: the blocking of goal-directed behavior. – Frustration-Aggression Theory states that frustration triggers a readiness to aggress. • Is frustration the same as deprivation? – Relative deprivation: the perception that one is less well off than others to whom one compares oneself.
Theories of Aggression • Is aggression learned social behavior? – Learning pulls or evokes aggression out of us • Rewards of Aggression: – Bullying or intimidating others – Athletes applauded for physically aggressive play • Observational Learning (Bandura) – Social Learning Theory: learn social behavior by observing & imitating, & via rewards & punishments. – Bobo Doll: lowered inhibitions & taught ways to aggress. • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=vdh 7 Mngntn. I&featur e=related
Influences on Aggression • What factors or conditions trigger aggression? – Aversive incidents: Physical pain, psychological pain, uncomfortable heat, an attack, or overcrowding. – Arousal feeds one emotion or another, when arousal is heightened it may be a recipe for aggression. – Aggression cues release the pent-up anger, specifically the sight of a weapon.
Influences on Aggression • Media influences: Pornography & sexual violence – Woman resists & the man persists, distortion of sexual reality, aggression against women • Television’s effect on behavior – Increase arousal – Lowers inhibitions – Evoke imitation
Influences on Aggression • Television’s effect on thinking – Desensitization – Altered perceptions of reality, increased fears – Cognitive priming: readily call aggressive acts to mind • Video Games: increases arousal, aggressive thinking, aggressive feelings, aggressive behaviors, & decreases prosocial behaviors. • Group Influences
Reduction of Aggression • How can aggression be reduced? – Catharsis? Learning to vent frustrations & aggression in social appropriate way • Emotional IQ – Social Learning: counteracting the factors that provoke aggression • Reduce aversive stimulation • Reward & model nonaggression