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Aggression and Rejection
Definitions �What is aggression? Violence? Antisocial behavior?
Operational definitions �Aggression questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1972) �Conflict Tactics Scales (Straus et al. , 1996) �Olweus Bullying and Victimization Questionnaire (Olweus, 1996) �Peer nominations �Experimental manipulations �What is the best way to measure aggression?
Types of aggression �Physical vs. verbal �Direct and indirect �Active vs. passive �Reactive vs. proactive �Relational (includes ostracism) �Displaced and Triggered displaced
Theories �Who is theory/theories associated with? �What does it say causes aggression? �When will there be more/less aggression? �Which types of aggression does it mostly deal with? �How would you reduce aggression, according to this theory? �What type of theory is it? (cognitive, evolutionary, motivational, etc. )
Social information processing model (Crick & Dodge, 1994) �Encode (notice) �Interpret situation �Decide on goal �Think of possible responses �Evaluate possible responses �Enactment (do it)
General aggression model (Anderson; Figure 8. 2)
Cultural influences �Culture �Time �Herding cultures (Southern Culture of Honor, Nisbett, Cohen) �Gender
Violent video game effects �What would aggression theories predict about VVG effects? �Why do people play VVG? �What effects does the APA report suggest VVG have? �On what areas are there still not much data? �Are there alternative explanations for these effects?
Results of Meta-Analyses for All Outcomes Calvert, S. L. , Appelbaum, M. , Dodge, K. A. , Graham, S. , Nagayama Hall, G. C. , Hamby, S. , . . . Hedges, L. V. (2017). The American Psychological Association Task Force assessment of violent video games: Science in the service of public interest. American Psychologist, 72(2), 126 -143. http: //dx. doi. org/10. 1037/a 0040413 © 2017 American Psychological Association
What do meta-analyses really tell us? �Hilgard et al. , 2017 reanalysis of Anderson et al, 2010 �Kepes et al. , 2017 response �Mathur & Vander. Weele, 2019 What are some researcher dfs in meta-analysis? What is their conclusion?
Table 1. Estimates From Video-Game Meta-Analyses DOI: (10. 1177/1745691619850104)
Halbrook, O’Donnell, & Mselfi, 2019 �Positive effects of VG �Effects may be moderated by: Motivation for gaming Skill How interpret game violence Outside variables (family, peer, depression) Social interaction (coop games can be good) Physical exercise (exergames)
How does the media affect coverage? � How does the media cover violent media? � https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=WGF 9 ilpp. Ii. I � https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=u_DO 9 TT 15 y. Q � https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=nvhov. ITyg. BI � Does this occur in other areas of science? � What can scientists do to reduce/address this problem? � Why do people think there is less of a link than there is? � What are our obligations as scientists to the public?
Comparison of the Effect of Violent Media on Aggression With Effects From Other Domains Note. All correlations are significantly different from zero. a = the effect of smoking tobacco on lung cancer, as estimated by pooling the data from Figures 1 and 3 in Wynder and Graham's (1950) classic article. The remaining effects were estimated from meta-analyses: b = Paik and Comstock (1994), c = Weller (1993), d = Wells (1998), e = Needleman and Gatsonis (1990), f = Fiore, Smith, Jorenby, and Baker (1994), g = Welten, Kemper, Post, and van Staveren (1995), h = Cooper (1989), i = Smith, Handley, and Wood (1990), and j = Hill, White, Jolley, and Mapperson (1988). Bushman, B. J. , & Anderson, C. A. (2001). Media violence and the American public: Scientific facts versus media misinformation. American Psychologist, 56(6 -7), 477 -489. http: //dx. doi. org/10. 1037/0003 -066 X. 56. 6 -7. 477 © 2001 American Psychological Association
Effect of Media Violence on Aggression: News Reports Versus Scientific Studies Note. Ratings based on news reports are positive if the article said that exposure to media violence is positively related to aggression. Correlations based on scientific studies are positive if media violence was positively related to aggression. Bushman, B. J. , & Anderson, C. A. (2001). Media violence and the American public: Scientific facts versus media misinformation. American Psychologist, 56(6 -7), 477 -489. http: //dx. doi. org/10. 1037/0003 -066 X. 56. 6 -7. 477 © 2001 American Psychological Association
What about guns/mass shootings? �Mass shootings in US �Cultural comparisons �Do guns keep us safe? �Dickey amendment
Person factors in aggression �Age �Gender �Executive brain function �Serotonin �Testosterone �Dark personality traits �Trait aggression �Unstable self-esteem (“hollow”; Baumeister)
Situational effects on aggression �Provocation �Bad moods �Pain �Revenge �Alcohol �Marijuana �Heat, noise, crowding, air pollution �Crowds/Anonymity �Weapons effect (Berkowitz) �Media violence/video games
Reducing aggression �What doesn’t work? Why? �What does work? Why? �What should we do as parents? Individuals? Society?
Rejection �How has rejection been studied? Are these equivalent? �https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=A 3 UTXs. J z. Aj 4
Ostracism blocks needs �Sociometer theory (Leary) �Temporal need-threat model (Williams)
Consequences and purposes �What are the consequences of rejection? �Why are people rejected? �What purpose could rejection serve?
Multimotive model of reactions to interpersonal rejection experiences. Smart Richman, L. , & Leary, M. R. (2009). Reactions to discrimination, stigmatization, ostracism, and other forms of interpersonal rejection: A multimotive model. Psychological Review, 116(2), 365 -383. doi: 10. 1037/a 0015250 © 2009 American Psychological Association
Responsive theory of social exclusion (Freedman, Wms, Beer, 2016) �What does it add to previous approaches? �What are the source’s needs in rejection? �What types of social exclusion does it describe? Examples? �Is explicit rejection really best? (and if so, why do people choose the other options? ) �What are possible moderators? �What makes for a nicer explicit rejection? �How may culture affect this?
Coming up �Terrorism and extremism (6 articles, no chapters) �Final exam questions before TG break �Paper and presentation rubrics