African Civilizations and the spread of Islam African

  • Slides: 74
Download presentation
African Civilizations and the spread of Islam

African Civilizations and the spread of Islam

African Societies • Africa so vast and diverse neither universal states or religions characterize

African Societies • Africa so vast and diverse neither universal states or religions characterize its history. • Stateless Societies: these are societies that organize authority around kinship or other obligations. Sometimes these stateless societies were quite large while others were small. No need to tax people if you don’t have a large government. Authority only affected small parts of peoples lives. • Secret societies: west Africa, group controlled customs and beliefs and were able to limit the authority of rulers. Maintained stability within the community. • Problems: outside pressure, mobilizing troops, organizing building projects, and long term stability to support trade.

Common Elements in African Societies • Language, thought, and religion • Bantu-speaking people-commonalities between

Common Elements in African Societies • Language, thought, and religion • Bantu-speaking people-commonalities between the various languages • Animistic beliefs (dance & drumming) • Believed in evil-priests led religious ceremonies • Belief in cosmology-view of how the universe worked (ethics) • Believed in a creator deity and power of ancestors • Importance of family or clan ties • Economics: N. Africa (active in Mediterranean trade), Sub-Saharan Africa (varied) • 30 -60 million people lived in Africa by 1500

Societies With and Without States • Stateless societies were controlled by Kinship Institutions •

Societies With and Without States • Stateless societies were controlled by Kinship Institutions • Lacked Authority Structures • Incorporated more people • Secret societies • Important in social life, would limit ruler’s authority • Weaknesses » Delayed ability to respond to outside pressures, mobilize for war, undertake large building projects, create stability for long term trade.

Common Elements in African Societies • Bantu Migration • Expansion of Bantu over time

Common Elements in African Societies • Bantu Migration • Expansion of Bantu over time video – One Language base • Animism- well developed ideas of good an evil – Cosmology – Ethical Code – Lineage important in relation with god – Deceased related to spiritual world

Islam • Cities and territories in N. Africa had been an important part of

Islam • Cities and territories in N. Africa had been an important part of the classical world: Carthage and Egypt • 640 -700 followers of Muhammad swept across N. Africa • 670 Muslims ruled (Tunisia) Ifriqiya • 711 Berbers into Spain. Stopped in 732 by Charles Martel in Poitiers (battle of Tours) • Many N. Africans converted to Islam b/c of message of equality & umma • Abbasid unified territory for a while • Almoravids: (11 th century) reform movement in Islam grew among Berbers. They launched a jihad or holy war to purify and spread Islam. They moved south to the African kingdoms and also north into Spain • Almohadis: (1130) reformist group

The Berbers Berber village The Berbers lived in northern Africa around 2000 BCE. They

The Berbers Berber village The Berbers lived in northern Africa around 2000 BCE. They called themselves “Amazigh” which means “free man. ” The name Berber came from the Greeks meaning “non-Greek. ”

Muslim Berbers Young Berber woman Where Berbers live in Africa In the 7 th

Muslim Berbers Young Berber woman Where Berbers live in Africa In the 7 th century the Arabs conquered the Berbers. The Berbers converted to Islam and joined the Arabs at war with the Christian Spaniards.

Berber Family The Berbers were never united. There were two dominant religious groups of

Berber Family The Berbers were never united. There were two dominant religious groups of Muslim Berbers: the Almoravids and the Almohads. They were constantly at war with each other. The Almoravids invaded Morocco and founded the capital of

 The Berbers ruled the region along the Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea known as

The Berbers ruled the region along the Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea known as the Maghreb. They controlled the caravans of camels that brought gold and salt across the desert. They were forced to pay tribute (like a tax) to the king of Ghana.

Berber landscape In 1147, the leader of the Almohad Berbers, Ibn Tumart, proclaimed himself

Berber landscape In 1147, the leader of the Almohad Berbers, Ibn Tumart, proclaimed himself a messenger of God and declared holy war on the Almoravids. His army captured Morocco and conquered all of the Muslim territories in Spain.

 In 1212, the Almohad Berbers were defeated by Spanish Christian armies and left

In 1212, the Almohad Berbers were defeated by Spanish Christian armies and left Spain. Muslim territories in Spain Afterwards the Berbers divided into small warring tribes. Ibn Tumart’s home in Spain

Christian Kingdoms: Nubia and Ethiopia • Developed in Africa along the Nile prior to

Christian Kingdoms: Nubia and Ethiopia • Developed in Africa along the Nile prior to the Romans making it their official religion • Egypt (Coptic-language of ancient Egypt) connect to Byzantine empire • Copts able to maintain religion in Egypt after Arabs conquered b/c they were dhimmi • Muslim tried to penetrate Nubia/ Kush and were met with resistance. Remained an independent Christian state until the 13 th century • They were cut off from Byzantium due to Arab conquerors • 13 -14 th centuries dynasty in Ethiopia traced it roots back to Solomon and Sheba. Continued being isolated.

The Kingdom of Aksum Nubia Yemen Aksum The Aksumite people lived in the mountains

The Kingdom of Aksum Nubia Yemen Aksum The Aksumite people lived in the mountains of Ethiopia near the Red Sea. They controlled the trade between the Yemenites of the Arabian Peninsula and the Nubians in Sudan. In the second century CE, Aksum conquered the Nubians and several kingdoms in the Arabian Peninsula.

City of Aksum ruins Roman and Greek sources describe the Aksumites of the 1

City of Aksum ruins Roman and Greek sources describe the Aksumites of the 1 st century CE as wealthy traders. Aksumite cities were very cosmopolitan, with Jewish, Nubian, Christian, and even Buddhist minorities. Cosmopolitan: Having many different groups of people

The Aksumites Become Christian Aksumite kings Early Aksumites were polytheistic. In the 4 th

The Aksumites Become Christian Aksumite kings Early Aksumites were polytheistic. In the 4 th century CE, the king of Aksum, Ezana, converted to Christianity and declared Aksum to be a Christian state. Polytheistic: Belief in many gods.

Chapel of the Tablet Ethiopian “Holy Trinity” Aksumite Christianity was different from that of

Chapel of the Tablet Ethiopian “Holy Trinity” Aksumite Christianity was different from that of the Catholic Church. The Aksumites had a different understanding of the divinity of Christ. They believe that the original Ten Commandments are in the Chapel of the Tablet in the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion in Axum, Ethiopia. Today, the Ethiopian (Abyssinian) Church still exists and has

Ethiopia, also called Abyssinia, rose out of the Kingdom of Aksum. Legend says that

Ethiopia, also called Abyssinia, rose out of the Kingdom of Aksum. Legend says that the Aksumite kings lost power to the Jewish queen Gudit around 900 CE. They were succeeded by the Zagwe dynasty, whose bestknown king was Gebre Mesqel Lalibela. He ordered the construction of the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela. The Solomonid dynasty took over Ethiopia in 1270, claiming descent from the kings of Aksum. Church of Lalibela

Grasslands • 3 important areas of contact: Atlantic, Indian Ocean, and savanna • Sahel-area

Grasslands • 3 important areas of contact: Atlantic, Indian Ocean, and savanna • Sahel-area between the western forests and the northern desert. Here is where the merchants came to trade. Camels brought from Asia couldn’t survive the humid regions of the forests. So the grasslands is where merchants came to trade. • Therefore, cities were established. In the 3 rd century Ghana developed. By the 10 th century it was in its hayday! Rules had also converted to Islam • However, they declined due to attacks by the Almoravid armies 1076 • Mali would replace it

The Sahel: African savannah The Sahel is a region on the southern border of

The Sahel: African savannah The Sahel is a region on the southern border of the Sahara. It means “shore of the desert. ” The Sahel is also called “savannah” grasslands. It has little rainfall and a long dry season. The Sahel is inhabited by pastoralists, farmers who move their herds of animals in search of food and water.

Sudanic States • There were many kingdoms active in Africa • Sudanic states often

Sudanic States • There were many kingdoms active in Africa • Sudanic states often had a patriarch or council of elders of a family that ruled • Terriortial core of similar peoples with conquered extension that paid taxes or tribute • Ghana, Mali, and Songhay powerful examples • Rules considered scared • Islam accepted and people mixed Islam with their culture

The Empire of Ghana Senegal River Empire of Ghana Niger River The Empire of

The Empire of Ghana Senegal River Empire of Ghana Niger River The Empire of Ghana was located between the Niger River and the Senegal River, in the Sahel. This area is in modern-day Mauritania and Mali. The people of the Ghana Empire are called the Soninke. The Soninke name for Ghana is “Wagadou” which means “Land of Herds. ”

Modern-day herding Herder in Mali African shepherd The Soninke people took Wagadou from the

Modern-day herding Herder in Mali African shepherd The Soninke people took Wagadou from the Berbers in the 4 th century. They were pastoralists (cattle herders). The kingdom was called Ghana by Europeans. The Sonike word “Ghana” means “warrior king. ”

King of Ghana Rock salt Gold nuggets Soninke woman The kings of Ghana controlled

King of Ghana Rock salt Gold nuggets Soninke woman The kings of Ghana controlled the salt and gold trade between northern and western Africa.

Koumbi Ghana Empire The Ghana Empire had a large army of cavalry and archers

Koumbi Ghana Empire The Ghana Empire had a large army of cavalry and archers to defend its trade routes. Koumbi, the ancient capital of Ghana, was the most powerful trading center in West Africa from about 800 to 1050 CE. “When the King of Ghana calls up his army, he can put 200, 000 men into the field. ” – Al Bakri

West African Trade Senegal River Mali Kola nuts Gambia River West Africa produced kola

West African Trade Senegal River Mali Kola nuts Gambia River West Africa produced kola nuts, palm oil, copper, and gold to send north to the Berbers. These would be transported on the Senegal and Gambia Rivers to trade with the Berbers for ceramics, glass, oil lamps, and salt.

The Importance of Salt in evaporation pit Unrefined salt from the sea Salt does

The Importance of Salt in evaporation pit Unrefined salt from the sea Salt does not naturally occur in West Africa. The Berbers, living along the Atlantic Ocean, produced salt from sea water. Berbers would make salt by evaporating the sea water in small pits.

Gold was plentiful Gold mine in Ghana Gold ore Gold was plentiful in southern

Gold was plentiful Gold mine in Ghana Gold ore Gold was plentiful in southern Ghana, but salt was scarce. At one time, gold and salt had equal value in Ghana; a pound of salt was traded for a pound of gold.

By the 8 th century, there were large populations of Muslims throughout northern Africa.

By the 8 th century, there were large populations of Muslims throughout northern Africa. The Berbers of Northern Africa brought Arab scholars to teach at centers for Islamic learning in cities like Timbuktu. . Timbuktu

Islamic manuscript The name “Muhammad" in Arabic calligraphy Muslims brought literacy, the use of

Islamic manuscript The name “Muhammad" in Arabic calligraphy Muslims brought literacy, the use of written language, into the Sahel. African cultures adapted Arabic writing for their own languages. Islam also brought many holy wars, or jihad, to the non-Muslim villages, cities, and kingdoms of the Sahel.

Muslim Traders The Mandinke The Sahara Arabs began to settle in Ghana by 900

Muslim Traders The Mandinke The Sahara Arabs began to settle in Ghana by 900 CE. Over time, many of the people in Ghana converted to Islam, like the Mandinke. The Wangara were famous gold traders who also spread Islam throughout West Africa.

Mali and Sundiata • Malinke people broke away from Ghana in the 13 th

Mali and Sundiata • Malinke people broke away from Ghana in the 13 th century to create Mali • Islamic • Agricultural and merchant state • Juula-Malinke merchants • Malinke expansion under Sundiata (Sunjata). He became the Mansa or emperor • Divided the kingdom into social order, created political institutions, and stationed garrisons. Made trade safe. • Sundiata died in 1260 • Mansa Kankan Musa –later successor (hajj 1324)

Cities and Villages in Sudan • Mix of Islamic and Sudanese • Examples: Jenne

Cities and Villages in Sudan • Mix of Islamic and Sudanese • Examples: Jenne and Timbuktu • Town were commercial with specialists and foreign residents. Scholars and theologians attracted. • Strong military to protect merchants • Libraries and universities developed. Books trade very lucrative here! • For most people life was centered around village life and agriculture. 80% of villagers lived by farming. Farms were small due to lack of tools. A large farm was only about 10 acres. Polygamy practiced here…why? • Rice, millet, sorghums, wheat, fruits, and veggies

Living along the Niger River The Jenne-jeno villagers traded with the Berbers of northern

Living along the Niger River The Jenne-jeno villagers traded with the Berbers of northern Africa. The Jenne-jeno traded rice, fish, baskets and pottery. The Berbers traded salt, copper, and stone.

Trade between North African Berbers and West African Jennejenos was done using camel caravans.

Trade between North African Berbers and West African Jennejenos was done using camel caravans. African camel caravan Sahara Desert

Modern-day Jenne, Mali Mud brick mosque at Jenne At Jenne-jeno archaeologists have found iron

Modern-day Jenne, Mali Mud brick mosque at Jenne At Jenne-jeno archaeologists have found iron and copper tools, gold jewelry, and clay animals. It is likely that the Jenne-jeno had highly skilled craftsmen. Jenne-jeno was completely abandoned in 1400 and rebuilt at the site of modern-day Jenne.

The Empire of Mali . Niani Empire of Mali Under Sundiata’s leadership, the Empire

The Empire of Mali . Niani Empire of Mali Under Sundiata’s leadership, the Empire of Mali grew quickly. Sundiata directed his people to improve agriculture and trade. He made his capital at Niani.

 Sorghum-grain or livestock food Millet Wheat

Sorghum-grain or livestock food Millet Wheat

Primary Agricultural Crops Rice Cotton Yams Onions Millet Beans

Primary Agricultural Crops Rice Cotton Yams Onions Millet Beans

Mali Trade Tunis Marrakech Cairo Northern Africa Timbuktu The Empire of Mali grew to

Mali Trade Tunis Marrakech Cairo Northern Africa Timbuktu The Empire of Mali grew to three times the size of Ghana. The kings of Mali expanded trade across all of the Sahara, from Cairo, Egypt, to Tunis, Tunisia, and west to the Berbers of Marrakech. Timbuktu became a large trading center.

Timbuktu Sahel herdsmen Timbuktu was originally settled by Berbers in the 11 th century.

Timbuktu Sahel herdsmen Timbuktu was originally settled by Berbers in the 11 th century. They were pastoralists who migrated with the seasons, bringing their animals to the Niger River when the savannah was dry.

Timbuktu Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu: Ancient Gospel of Luke Timbuktu became an important trading

Timbuktu Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu: Ancient Gospel of Luke Timbuktu became an important trading center between western and northern Africa. It was known as the place where “the camel met the canoe. ” Timbuktu later became the primary center of Islamic knowledge in West Africa.

Natural Resources Kulikoro, Mali banknote Mali controlled the gold mines of Ghana at Wangara.

Natural Resources Kulikoro, Mali banknote Mali controlled the gold mines of Ghana at Wangara. New gold mines were discovered at Bure, near the capital at Niani on the Niger River. Mali controlled the salt mines at Taghasa. Mali also controlled the copper mines at Takedda.

Mansa Musa Map of Mali Mansa Musa Mali’s greatest ruler was Mansa Musa. He

Mansa Musa Map of Mali Mansa Musa Mali’s greatest ruler was Mansa Musa. He came to power in 1307 CE. He was a devout Muslim. In 1324, he made a pilgrimage to Mecca with up to 50, 000 people. It is said that he traveled to Mecca with about 100 camels, each carrying 100 pounds of gold dust. Mali’s wealth was known throughout the European and Muslim worlds.

 After Mansa Musa, Mali’s power began to decline. Mali could not protect its

After Mansa Musa, Mali’s power began to decline. Mali could not protect its camel caravans from the northern Berbers. By the mid 1400 s, the Berbers captured Timbuktu. The small Kingdom of Songhai near Gao, led by Prince Sunni Ali, conquered the Mali Empire in 1463. Modern-day Gao, at the Niger River

Songhay Kingdom • Formed as Mali was declining within part of Mali. People of

Songhay Kingdom • Formed as Mali was declining within part of Mali. People of Songhay were from the middle area in the Niger Valley. Made up of farmers, herders, and fisherman • By the 7 th century started to form a independent territory • By 1010 capital established at Gao along the Niger River. Rulers were Muslims. • By 1370’s Songhay reestablished itself as an independent kingdom again from Mali • Under Sunni Ali (1464 -1492) Songhay became an empire!

Songhay • Sunni Ali was a great military commander who extended the empire and

Songhay • Sunni Ali was a great military commander who extended the empire and took over Jenne and Timbuktu. • Set up provincial administrations to deliver his rule • Muslim scholars not his biggest fans. They questioned his authority! Ruler who succeeded him took on the military title askia. • Muhammad the Great extended the Songhay boundaries so that by the mid-16 th century Songhay dominated the Sudan! • Overall problem between Muslim scholars and African converts b/c they mixed Islam with their local pagan beliefs. Men and women mixed freely and women went unveiled. • Remained the dominate power until 1591 when a Muslim army from Morocco attacked. They had muskets! • Rise of the Hausa states in N. Nigeria

Sunni Ali became king of the Songhai Empire. He moved the capital to Gao.

Sunni Ali became king of the Songhai Empire. He moved the capital to Gao. Sunni Ali was not a devout Muslim. In fact, many African Muslims had mixed opinions about some Islamic teachings, such as those concerning the role of women. Sunni Ali

Askia Muhammad Sunni Ali was succeeded by his son, a non-Muslim. He was overthrown

Askia Muhammad Sunni Ali was succeeded by his son, a non-Muslim. He was overthrown by the Muslim population, who made Askia Muhammad, a Muslim, king of Mali. Under Askia Muhammad: Islam became the state religion of Mali. Arab scholars were brought to Timbuktu became the cultural center of West Africa. Tomb of Askia Muhammad

Moroccan Conquest The Songhai Empire was defeated by a force of 1, 000 Berbers

Moroccan Conquest The Songhai Empire was defeated by a force of 1, 000 Berbers led by Judar Pasha of Morocco in 1590. The Moroccans were successful because they had arquebuses, a firearm preceding the musket. The Moroccans captured Timbuktu, the salt mines of Taghasa, and the gold mines of Mali. The Moroccans, however, could not control the Songhai region. Instead, they kept soldiers in the cities of Mali for the next 150 years. Salt Mines

Sudanic States: politics and social life • State structure allowed for many diverse people

Sudanic States: politics and social life • State structure allowed for many diverse people to coexist • Universal faith-Islam which also provided common laws • Rulers-emir or caliph (to reinforce authority) Mixed pagan and Muslim beliefs • Women enjoyed more freedom, no veils, free in markets, some groups traced linage through mother (matrilineal). • Slavery: existed before Muslims came, but they developed it on a larger scale. Muslims viewed slavery as a stage in conversion. Slaves: domestic servants, soldiers, administrators, eunuchs, concubines. Focus on child and female slaves. Trade caravans transported many slaves across the Sahara to ports in the Indian Ocean. Trade extended for over 700 years. Think back to Nubia!

Swahili Coast-East Africa • Islam spread along Eastern coast and merchant activity spread and

Swahili Coast-East Africa • Islam spread along Eastern coast and merchant activity spread and Muslim ports where established along the Indian Ocean • Bantu-speaking people migrated here along with refugees from Oman • By 13 th century African trading ports developed along the coast. These towns shared common Bantu-based and Arabic-influenced Swahili (meaning coastal) language and other traits. • Ruled by separate Muslim ruling families • Trade in ivory, gold, slaves, iron, and exotic animals for silks and porcelain • Kilwa most powerful of these port cities • Some Chinese sent good directly to these ports. As late as 1417 and 1431 large state sponsored expeditions sailing from China to Africa occurred.

The Swahili Coast and Major Trade Routes

The Swahili Coast and Major Trade Routes

Swahili, Land of Zenj • Port cities developed into city-states with their own local

Swahili, Land of Zenj • Port cities developed into city-states with their own local governments. Rulers interested in controlling slave trade and not making territorial conquests. • Palace in Kilwa • Cultural hybrid -Between Arabic and African Swahili –bantu and Arabic words -Many in-land Africans not Muslim -1500 Portuguese

Forest and Plains of Africa • 1000 societies in central Africa agriculturally based with

Forest and Plains of Africa • 1000 societies in central Africa agriculturally based with herding occasionally • Organized into villages, however, states were starting to form • Preliterate society (no written language) transmitted knowledge via oral traditions • Gap between the Nok (500 -200 BCE and) cultures that begin a renewed interest in arts 1000 CE • Yoruba-speaking peoples of Nigeria. The city of Ile. Ife amazing artwork of rulers by 1200 CE • Yoruba state were agriculturally based with Ile-Ife thought to be the cultural center • Yoruba origins unknown, but they spoke a non-Bantu language of the west African Kwa family similar their neighbors the Hausa people

The Nok Nigeria Nok sculpture Nigerian woman, early 20 th century The Nok were

The Nok Nigeria Nok sculpture Nigerian woman, early 20 th century The Nok were Iron Age people living in what is now Nigeria. Their culture thrived from 500 BCE until 200 CE, when it came to a sudden end. Nok sculpture has been found as far north as Sokoto, Nigeria.

Iron ore The village Of Nok near Sokoto The Nok get their name from

Iron ore The village Of Nok near Sokoto The Nok get their name from the village of Nok where iron artifacts were first discovered. The Nok produced iron from ore using clay furnaces and charcoal.

The Nok were skilled potters. They used clay to: Build their homes Make pottery

The Nok were skilled potters. They used clay to: Build their homes Make pottery Design sculpture Nok sculpture The Nok began moving out of the Jos Plateau region of Nigeria around 200 CE and then disappeared. The Jos Plateau

 • Yoruba had regional kings that were divine, but not absolute. Ruled with

• Yoruba had regional kings that were divine, but not absolute. Ruled with princes, councils, and even Ogboni (secret society of religious and political leaders) • Ile-Ife, Oyo, and Benin

Yoruba

Yoruba

Central African Kingdoms • Bantu-speaking peoples reach the southern part of Africa by the

Central African Kingdoms • Bantu-speaking peoples reach the southern part of Africa by the 13 th century. Beyond the reach of Islam African kingdoms form by 1000 with kings. • In Katanga-modified older system where now the ruler and his relatives were thought to have a special power and they ensured the fertility of the people and crops. They were the only ones fit to rule. A bureaucracy grew out of heredity.

Kongo and Mwene Mutapa • 13 th century Kongo developed. agriculturally based, specialization like

Kongo and Mwene Mutapa • 13 th century Kongo developed. agriculturally based, specialization like blacksmithing, women did all farm work while men cleared forests, built houses, and traded. • Mbanza Kongo capital by 16 th had 100, 000 inhabitants. • Manikongo=king (mani = blacksmith) • Kongo king was hereditary yet local chieftains were not and the king could control them. • Great Zimbabwe- Shona-speaking people around the 9 th century built royal courts of stone (zimbabwe) largest structure the Great Zimbabwe. • By 15 th century centralized rule from Great Zimbabwe occurred under the king, Mwene Mutapa. (Interior of southeast Africa) Control over gold allowed Great Zimbabwe to flourish and become active in trade. 16 th century internal rebellions split the kingdom, but as late as the 19 th century the much smaller kingdom of Mwene Mutapa survived.

Mwene Mutapa Kongo

Mwene Mutapa Kongo

The Great Zimbabwe Ruins of Zimbabwe The Shona were the first group of Bantu-speaking

The Great Zimbabwe Ruins of Zimbabwe The Shona were the first group of Bantu-speaking people to inhabit the Zimbabwe plateau. The Great Zimbabwe is a stone fortress built by the Shona. Zimbabwe is a Shona term meaning “houses of stone. ” The Shona began building their fortress city around 300 CE. The granite walls of the city were up to 20 feet thick.

Map of Zimbabwe The Great Zimbabwe

Map of Zimbabwe The Great Zimbabwe

The Shona There is little record of the Shona people. We know that the

The Shona There is little record of the Shona people. We know that the Shona traded gold, ivory, and food with the coastal cities. We also know that they had silk from China, glass from India, and pottery from Persia. Shona shaman

Zimbabwe today The Shona had fantastic gold wealth. They did not consider gold valuable

Zimbabwe today The Shona had fantastic gold wealth. They did not consider gold valuable because it is a soft metal. Iron was more valuable for making tools.

Developments • Islam brought large areas of Africa into more intensive contact with the

Developments • Islam brought large areas of Africa into more intensive contact with the global community • Although Islam was to bring equality to the people it brought more stark divisions • Many locals retained their beliefs or mix Islam with local traditions like in India • Royals were Muslim • Muslims controlled trade and were very wealthy and becoming a Muslim opened up doors for individuals involved in merchant activities. • Kongo and Great Zimbabwe were examples of statebuilding that development independently! • In the 15 th century, the Portuguese found well development and powerful kingdoms • European advances to seek alternative routes to Asia due to Ottoman Turk advanced shutting down Constantinople/ Istanbul