- Slides: 24
u Advertising and propaganda are complex communication forms u They employ sophisticated and subtle methods of persuasion u they play to our desires, fears and biases to change the way we think. u Is advertising then dangerous? u What about messages that persuade you to quit smoking, get healthier, get active, or support a worthy cause?
u to critically view an advertisement we must make two evaluations: u 1. Analyze to determine why they are effective persuasive messages u 2. study to uncover the cultural assumptions and values they carry
Characteristics of Advertising u All forms of advertising are meant to create positive attitudes toward people, products and events u Advertising plays up the good aspects of a product. . . bad aspects are downplayed through omission of info. u Visual images give a product an impression to help persuade audiences to accept its worthiness.
u Ads must show the product or service offers a clear benefit, appealing to the beliefs, attitudes, desires, fears and biases of the target audience. u Ads must catch and hold the viewer’s eye. u Even though print advertising presents a still image they often suggest a narrative. u Thus the picture used must “speak a thousand words”
Terms and Techniques
Testimonial u The endorsement of a product by a well-known person or organization u ex. Pepsi
Transfer u The shifting of qualities from one thing to another. u ex. Shampoo commercials
Plain Folks u Talking down to the viewers in order to appear just like them u ex. pretty much any kitchen product. . . the glad man. u And…
Bandwagon u The suggestion that everyone is using or doing something u ex. Canada’s number 1 brand
Snob Appeal u The association of a product with a desirable lifestyle u Lexus
Facts and Figures u The implication that figures and statistics prove a point beyond dispute u ex. Toothpaste
Hidden Fears u The exploitation of an individual’s fears and insecurities. u Deodorant commercials u Diaper commercials u And…
Repetition u The constant statement of an idea to fix the image of a product in the audience’s mind. u ex. 7 -Up
Magic Ingredients u The implication that a product’s effectiveness is scientifically based. u skin and cosmetic products use this method all the time. u “Aloe” u “Any aging formula”
Weasal Words u The use of vague terms to mislead the viewer into thinking the product is better than it really is.
Spin u The attempt to turn negative evidence into something that the public will perceive positively. u Used a lot in political Ads. u Or…
Assignment: Closer Look at Advertisements 1. Search the web for an advertisement (commercial or poster) 2. Answer the following questions on a separate piece of paper to be handed in.
View the Ad as a whole, consider: 1. Your first impression of the ad 2. its tone (think emotion) and atmosphere (think setting) 3. the storyline (if one exists), is there a climax and resolution? 4. possible target audience
Be specific about the audience 5. narrow it down: is the ad placed properly to reach the intended audience? Print ad: Think about what website it’s on. (government, game site, social network, blog, online mag, etc. ) Commercial: On what tv network(s) would this commercial air? At what time?
Determine the message 6. What people are in the ad? Stereotypes? Body language? Celebrity? Why use this person? 7. Is a story being told? 8. Does the content imply a certain lifestyle?
Examine the language used 9. What message is conveyed? 10. Key words and phrases? 11. Claims? 12. What techniques are being used? (see previous slides for these terms) 13. Connotative and Denotative message?
14. How effective is the advertisement in communicating a message? 15. What emotional hooks are used? 16. Will you remember the product or slogan? 17. Social values? 18. What social attitudes are indirectly reflected in the ad?
Reviewing print advertisements 19. What is the focal point/centre of interest? 20. How are visuals arranged? 21. How does the font print contribute to the ad? 22. Does colour affect the message of the ad? 23. Does the product appear in the ad? Where is it? 24. The logo. . . ?