ADVANCING VOCABULARY SKILLS Fourth Edition Sherrie L Nist

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ADVANCING VOCABULARY SKILLS Fourth Edition Sherrie L. Nist © 2010 Townsend Press

ADVANCING VOCABULARY SKILLS Fourth Edition Sherrie L. Nist © 2010 Townsend Press

Unit One: Chapter 2 • collaborate • rudimentary • despondent • scoff • instigate

Unit One: Chapter 2 • collaborate • rudimentary • despondent • scoff • instigate • squelch • resilient • venerate • retrospect • zealot

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 1 collaborate – verb • When Sarah and I were asked to collaborate on an article for the school newspaper, we found it difficult to work together. • Several writers and editors have collaborated in preparing this vocabulary text, sharing their knowledge and skills. Collaborate means A. to compete. B. to stop work. C. to act as a team.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 1 collaborate – verb • When Sarah and I were asked to collaborate on an article for the school newspaper, we found it difficult to work together. • Several writers and editors have collaborated in preparing this vocabulary text, sharing their knowledge and skills. Collaborate means A. to compete. B. to stop work. C. to act as a team. The words work together suggest that collaborate means “to act as a team. ” In the second item, since the writers and editors shared their skills, they acted as a team.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 2 despondent – adjective • Devon becomes despondent too easily. If he gets even one bad grade, he loses all hope of succeeding in school. • For months after his wife died, Mr. Craig was despondent. No matter how hard they tried, his family and friends could not cheer him up. Despondent means A. ill. B. depressed. C. angry.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 2 despondent – adjective • Devon becomes despondent too easily. If he gets even one bad grade, he loses all hope of succeeding in school. • For months after his wife died, Mr. Craig was despondent. No matter how hard they tried, his family and friends could not cheer him up. Despondent means A. ill. B. depressed. C. angry. If Devon loses all hope, he must become depressed. Since Mr. Craig’s family and friends could not cheer him up, he was depressed.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 3 instigate – verb • An English captain named Robert Jenkins instigated a war in 1738 by displaying his pickled ear, which he said had been cut off by a Spanish patrol. The horrified British declared war on Spain—the “War of Jenkins’ Ear. ” • The rock group’s violent performance instigated a riot in the audience. Instigate means A. to prevent. B. to predict. C. to cause.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 3 instigate – verb • An English captain named Robert Jenkins instigated a war in 1738 by displaying his pickled ear, which he said had been cut off by a Spanish patrol. The horrified British declared war on Spain—the “War of Jenkins’ Ear. ” • The rock group’s violent performance instigated a riot in the audience. Instigate means A. to prevent. B. to predict. C. to cause. Since the British declared war, Jenkins caused the war by claiming his ear was cut off by a Spanish patrol. A rock group’s violent performance could cause the audience to riot.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 4 resilient – adjective • Children can be amazingly resilient. Even after a sad or frightening experience, they often bounce back to their normal cheerful selves. • Plant life is resilient. For example, a few weeks after the Mount St. Helens volcano erupted in Washington in 1980, flowers were growing in the ashes. Resilient means A. widespread. B. slow to recover. C. quick to recover.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 4 resilient – adjective • Children can be amazingly resilient. Even after a sad or frightening experience, they often bounce back to their normal cheerful selves. • Plant life is resilient. For example, a few weeks after the Mount St. Helens volcano erupted in Washington in 1980, flowers were growing in the ashes. Resilient means A. widespread. B. slow to recover. C. quick to recover. In the first item, the words bounce back suggest that resilient means “quick to recover. ” In the second item, since the flowers were growing again in only a few weeks, plant life must be quick to recover.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 5 retrospect – noun • After hobbling around on her broken foot for a week before seeing a doctor, Maethen needed surgery. In retrospect, it’s clear she should have gotten help sooner. • When I took Ms. Klein’s writing course, I thought she was too demanding. In retrospect, though, I realize that she taught me more than anyone else. Retrospect means A. looking back. B. looking for excuses. C. looking ahead.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 5 retrospect – noun • After hobbling around on her broken foot for a week before seeing a doctor, Maethen needed surgery. In retrospect, it’s clear she should have gotten help sooner. • When I took Ms. Klein’s writing course, I thought she was too demanding. In retrospect, though, I realize that she taught me more than anyone else. Retrospect means A. looking back. B. looking for excuses. C. looking ahead. Looking back, it is clear that Maethen might not have needed surgery if she had gotten help sooner. Similarly, looking back, it is clear the teacher who seemed too demanding was actually teaching the speaker a lot.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 6 rudimentary – adjective • A grammar book usually starts with rudimentary skills, such as identifying nouns and verbs. • I’m so used to adding and subtracting on a calculator that I’ve probably forgotten how to do those rudimentary mathematical calculations on my own. Rudimentary means 2+1=3 A rudimentary math problem A. basic. B. intermediate. C. advanced.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 6 rudimentary – adjective • A grammar book usually starts with rudimentary skills, such as identifying nouns and verbs. • I’m so used to adding and subtracting on a calculator that I’ve probably forgotten how to do those rudimentary mathematical calculations on my own. Rudimentary means 2+1=3 A rudimentary math problem A. basic. B. intermediate. C. advanced. Identifying nouns and verbs are basic grammar skills. And adding and subtracting are basic mathematical calculations.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 7 scoff – verb • Bystanders scoffed at the street musician playing a tune on a row of tin cans, but he seemed unaware that people were making fun of him. • Tony scoffed at reports that a hurricane was coming until he saw the winds knocking down trees and overturning cars. Scoff means A. to laugh at. B. to watch. C. to take seriously.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 7 scoff – verb • Bystanders scoffed at the street musician playing a tune on a row of tin cans, but he seemed unaware that people were making fun of him. • Tony scoffed at reports that a hurricane was coming until he saw the winds knocking down trees and overturning cars. Scoff means A. to laugh at. B. to watch. C. to take seriously. The words making fun of him suggest that scoff means “to laugh at. ” If Tony didn’t believe that a hurricane was coming, he would laugh at the reports.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 8 squelch – verb • My history teacher shot me a dirty look during class when I couldn’t quite manage to squelch a burp. • Decades of communism in Eastern Europe didn’t squelch the desire for freedom. As soon as they could, the people in these countries began to form democracies. Squelch means A. to encourage. B. to hold back. C. to release.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 8 squelch – verb • My history teacher shot me a dirty look during class when I couldn’t quite manage to squelch a burp. • Decades of communism in Eastern Europe didn’t squelch the desire for freedom. As soon as they could, the people in these countries began to form democracies. Squelch means A. to encourage. B. to hold back. C. to release. Since the teacher was annoyed, the student must not have been able to hold back a burp. Since the people in Eastern Europe formed democracies as soon as they could, decades of communism must not have held back their desire for freedom.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 9 venerate – verb • The Tlingit Indians venerate the wolf and the raven, and their totem poles illustrate stories in praise of these animals. • The guests at our dean’s retirement banquet made it clear that they venerated her; when she entered the room, everyone rose. Venerate means A. to pity. B. to honor. C. to remember.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 9 venerate – verb • The Tlingit Indians venerate the wolf and the raven, and their totem poles illustrate stories in praise of these animals. • The guests at our dean’s retirement banquet made it clear that they venerated her; when she entered the room, everyone rose. Venerate means A. to pity. B. to honor. C. to remember. The word praise suggests that venerate means “to honor. ” Since everyone stood up when the dean entered the room, it is clear that the guests honored her.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 10 zealot – noun • Annie, a zealot about health, runs a hundred miles a week and never lets a grain of sugar touch her lips. • The Crusaders were Christian zealots during the Middle Ages who left their homes and families and went off to try to capture the Holy Land. Zealot means A. an extremist. B. an observer. C. a doubter.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.

TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 10 zealot – noun • Annie, a zealot about health, runs a hundred miles a week and never lets a grain of sugar touch her lips. • The Crusaders were Christian zealots during the Middle Ages who left their homes and families and went off to try to capture the Holy Land. Zealot means A. an extremist. B. an observer. C. a doubter. Someone who runs a hundred miles a week and never touches sugar is an extremist about health. Since the Crusaders left their homes and families to try to capture the Holy Land, they must have been Christian extremists.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. collaborate B. despondent C. instigate F. rudimentary G. scoff H. squelch D. resilient E. retrospect I. venerate J. zealot 1. My ability to speak Spanish is ______, but I can at least manage to ask directions or order a meal. 2. Jaime was _____ over the death of his dog, his companion for fourteen years.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. collaborate B. despondent C. instigate F. rudimentary G. scoff H. squelch D. resilient E. retrospect I. venerate J. zealot rudimentary but I can at 1. My ability to speak Spanish is ______, least manage to ask directions or order a meal. Asking directions and ordering a meal indicate a basic ability in a foreign language. despondent over the death of his dog, his 2. Jaime was _____ companion for fourteen years. Losing a companion of fourteen years would make Jaime downhearted.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. collaborate B. despondent C. instigate F. rudimentary G. scoff H. squelch D. resilient E. retrospect I. venerate J. zealot 3. The novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which exposed the horrors of slavery, helped to _____ the American Civil War. 4. Dawn is a _____ about banning nuclear weapons. She has walked for miles in protest marches and stood in the rain for hours during demonstrations. 5. Mother Teresa, who devoted her life to helping the poor, is ____(e)d by some people as a twentieth-century saint.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. collaborate B. despondent C. instigate F. rudimentary G. scoff H. squelch D. resilient E. retrospect I. venerate J. zealot 3. The novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which exposed the horrors instigate the American Civil War. of slavery, helped to _____ A book exposing the horrors of slavery would help bring about the Civil War. zealot 4. Dawn is a _____ about banning nuclear weapons. She has walked for miles in protest marches and stood in the rain for hours during demonstrations. Dawn’s actions show she is totally devoted to the cause. 5. Mother Teresa, who devoted her life to helping the poor, is venerated by some people as a twentieth-century saint. ______ Since people think she is a saint, they must respect her deeply.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. collaborate B. despondent C. instigate F. rudimentary G. scoff H. squelch D. resilient E. retrospect I. venerate J. zealot 6. The Cord, in the 1920 s, was the first car with front-wheel drive, but in those days most people considered the idea ridiculous and ____(e)d at it. 7. Marie and Pierre Curie _______(e)d on important scientific experiments involving radioactivity.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. collaborate B. despondent C. instigate F. rudimentary G. scoff H. squelch D. resilient E. retrospect I. venerate J. zealot 6. The Cord, in the 1920 s, was the first car with front-wheel drive, but in those days most people considered the idea scoffed ridiculous and ______ at it. People would mock an idea they considered ridiculous. collaborated on important scientific 7. Marie and Pierre Curie _____ experiments involving radioactivity. The Curies worked together on the experiments.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. collaborate B. despondent C. instigate F. rudimentary G. scoff H. squelch D. resilient E. retrospect I. venerate J. zealot 8. Kim’s parents nagged her so hard about practicing the piano that they finally _______(e)d any interest she might have had in music. 9. Since I’d like to be a photographer, I can see, in _____, that I would have gained valuable experience if I’d taken pictures for the school newspaper. 10. Athletes need to be _____. After a defeat, an individual or a team must be able to come back and fight for victory the next time.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A.

SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. collaborate B. despondent C. instigate F. rudimentary G. scoff H. squelch D. resilient E. retrospect I. venerate J. zealot 8. Kim’s parents nagged her so hard about practicing the squelched any interest she might piano that they finally _____ have had in music. Constant nagging can crush a person’s interest. retrospect 9. Since I’d like to be a photographer, I can see, in _____, that I would have gained valuable experience if I’d taken pictures for the school newspaper. Looking back, the speaker can see the value of taking pictures for the paper. resilient After a defeat, an individual 10. Athletes need to be _____. or a team must be able to come back and fight for victory the next time. The words able to come back tell you athletes must be quick to recover.