- Slides: 23
Administrative Reform BLUE TEAM “Administrative reform means an induced, permanent improvement in administration” (Wallis 1989, 170)
Part I: Golden Oldies
Miewald: Life and Hard Times of Bureaucracies Organizations aren’t instrumental – i. e. , they ‘are not supposed to accomplish anything beyond their own existence’ (100) Problem with way organizational theory sees organizations (rational) In reality, can look at them as technical, human relations and political problems Technical Personal: ‘can bend an organization out of shape’ (105) Political: most important; key is budgeting (‘clash of values and the making of allocative decisions’ ) Stages of the bureau Birth, growth (survival), maturity (little search); death
Miewald: Responsibility Difficult to get a grasp of. What is it? Responsiveness, flexibility, consistency, stability, leadership, probity, candor, competence, efficacy, prudence, due process, accountability (237) ‘Sins’ of bureaucracies Arrogance, political involvement, corruption, unethical behavior, inefficiency, failure to respect legislative intent, ignoring procedures, information manipulation, abuse of subordinates, failure to show initiative Concrete ways to prevent/remedy irresponsibility Administrative law (discretion vs Rechtsstaat); ombudsman (the public’s ‘agent’); individual responsibility (human values and selfregulation of bureaucrats; encouragement of whistle blowers)
Marini: The Minnowbrook Perspective In light of ‘new public administration’ Make PA relevant to societal problems of the day Moving away from value-free (positivist) research approaches Focus on what schools/education of PA should look like More comparative, empirical, focused on social equity Teach PA as the applied social science PA as ‘educational’ versus merely ‘training’ Curriculum: ‘up to date, alive, problem oriented, and relevant’ (361)
Policy, Implementation and Local Institutions in Botswana (Picard and Morgan 1985) • Focus of this chapter – the relationship between rural development goals and central-local institutional arrangements • “Governments has many good ideas but we don’t know too much about them out here” (125) • In an interview with one administrative secretary to the district Land Board in Botswana • Challenges of local officials – Implementation decisions taken far away in the national capital – Little knowledge of the reasoning behind the policy – Few resources, financial and administrative to carry out the policy • Agenda and the reality: Tribal Grazing Land Policy (1975) – Original policy: generating responsibility for the control of land use/writing a land use plan for the district/supervising the division of district land/protecting the interests of the poorer people – Reality and implementation: the land boards understaffed/ill-equipped/ without adequate office space
Policy, Implementation and Local Institutions in Botswana (continued) Why? Dynamics of policy implementation Multi-dimensional policies and institutions Þ Interplay between policy and institutions/reciprocal effects Framework for analysis The degree of asymmetry between the public policy goals and the organizational capacity of local institutions Policy implementation as the main consideration within the “policy context” Local government: Devolution and retreat The evolution of district councils, 1966 -1970 Faith in the center, 1970 -1976 Stalled attempts at local government perform, 1977 -present Organizational capacity at the local level Central government, unwilling to increase the capacity of local government The affective dimension of local government
The Mouse that Roared: Taiwan’s Management of Trade Relations with the United States (Chan 1987) Main focus: How dependent country like Taiwan has faced conditions of basic asymmetry in international relations? How we can understand the trade relationship and predict the future? How small and dependent economies have tried to lessen or evade the full impact of U. S. protectionist pressures?
The Mouse that Roared: Taiwan’s Management of Trade Relations with the United States (Continued) Micro level of bargaining tactics Problem redefinition, damage limitation, exploring loopholes, linkage politics and transnational coalitions Macro level factors Taiwan’s policy capacity and U. S. accommodating behavior Taiwan’s institutional capabilities especially in terms of the autonomy and strength of the state; its historical niche in U. S. domestic policies and Washington’s cold war containment policy Metagame: Taiwan’s coping behavior in the trade can be understood in the broader context of a “metagame” that seeks to preserve the vital political and security contributions from the U. S.
Part II: Literary Maps and Synthesis
Preview The meaning of public sector reform Literary maps - how we have conceptualized the field How bureaucracy provides services Privatization Role of personnel Human resource management Accountability Implementation Governance Accountability Corruption Development
The meaning of public sector reform “Induced, permanent improvement in administration” (Wallis 1989, 170) Administrative reform strategies (Turner and Humle 1997) Restructuring Participation Human resources issues. Accountability Public – private mixes Challenges Management (finance/human resource/leadership) Measuring performance Accountability/responsibility for implementation Governance
Privatization Fuller/ Savas Accountability Arnold and Morgan Wallis Development Miewald / Barzelay Picard and Garrity/ Nelson White Human Resource Management Marini (Minnowbrook Perspective) Klitgaard Picard and Morgan Turner and Hulme Governance Corruption Implementation
How bureaucracy provides services Privatization Savas: “the key to better government” Alarmed by growth in government Lays out a spectrum of privatization options from contracting out, to franchising, to government vending Arnold and Morgan: projects, plans, and programs Need organizational framework for managers Distinguish between project and program management • Project: clear objectives; defined roles and responsibilities; plans and schedules; rewards/sanctions; feedback/adaptation mechanisms • Program: design, implementor capacity; expanding resources/support; collaboration with other organizations; proactive leadership Result: towards better effectiveness in implementation of public policy goals
Role of personnel Human resource management A key way to reform, over time Education rather than technical training (Minnowbrook) Accountability Barzelay: need to move to “post-bureaucratic” structure where officials, civil servants “build” rather than “enforce” accountability Often seen in terms of accountability to overseers, line agencies and staff Should move from “guardianship to problem solving” (99) Need “new routines” and a new culture • • • “way things should and could be” Problem-solving “customers and public policy” “producing value” “caring about people”
Implementation Governance World Bank Policy and NGOs: World bank has expanded collaboration with private agencies and grassroots groups in projects (Nelson 1995). NGOs tendencies to process-oriented programming contradicts the interests of World Bank (Nelson 1995). Beyond the market, beyond the state (Turner and Hulme 1997, 200) the rise of non-governmental organizations Governance and creating civil society (Garrity 1996) Institutional development/changing organizational behavior and management practices (Garrity 1996)
Implementation (Continued) Corruption (Klitgaard 1991) Hong Kong’s Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC): analyzing the ICAC’s success: several principal-agent client relationships Singapore: Cleaning up corruption Changing rewards and penalties Gathering information Restructuring the principal-agent-client relationship Case of Korea: collusion in bidding/attempts to make competition work
Administrative reform and development Bureaucracy and development (Turner and Hulme 1997) Leading issues relating to bureaucracy and development Size Capacity: project implementation and capacity Culture: bureaucracies of developing countries are heavily influenced by endogenous cultures. Power, politics, and authority: power distribution in society/in government Bureaucratic bias Gender and bureaucracy Corruption
Administrative reform and development (Continued) Reform cases (Wallis 1989) China – public health program/Kenya - tea development authority/Korea - government invested enterprises NGOs, empowerment and politics (Turner and Hulme 1997) Empowerment as a grand object NGOs claim to be redistributing power at the local level and influencing policy People-centered development
Referneces Marini, Frank. 1971. Toward a new public administration: the Minnowbrook perspective. Scranton, PA: Chandler Pub. Co. Chan, S. 1987. "The mouse that roared: Taiwan's management of trade relations with the US. " Comparative Political Studies 20 (3): 251 -92. Picard, Louis A. , and Philip E. Morgan. 1985. "Policy, implementation and local institutions in Botswana. " In The evolution of modern Botswana, ed. L. A. Picard. London: Rex Collings. Miewald, Robert D. 1978. Public administration: a critical perspective. New York: Mc. Graw-Hill.
References Baker, Randall. 1994. Comparative public management: putting U. S. public policy and implementation in context. Westport, CN: Praeger. Barzelay, Michael, and Babak J. Armajani. 1992. Breaking through bureaucracy: a new vision for managing in government. Berkeley: University of California Press. Picard, Louis A. , Michele Garrity, and International Institute of Administrative Sciences. 1994. Policy reform for sustainable development in Africa: the institutional imperative. Boulder, CO: L. Rienner Publishers. Savas, Emanuel S. 1987. Privatization: the key to better government. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers.
References Klitgaard, Robert E. 1988. Controlling corruption. Berkeley: University of California Press. Wallis, Malcolm. 1989. Bureaucracy: its role in Third World development. London: Macmillan. Nelson, Paul J. 1995. The World Bank and non-governmental organizations: the limits of apolitical development. New York: St. Martin's Press. White, Louise G. 1990. Implementing policy reforms in LDCs: a strategy for designing and effecting change. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers. Turner, Mark, and David Hulme. 1997. Governance, administration, and development: making the state work. West Hartford, CN: Kumarian Press.