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Adaptation • Adaptation is a special characteristic that allows an organism to survive in a particular environment. • • Adaptations may be: physical appearance (morphology) internal systems (physiology) something an organism does (behaviour)
• Organisms that live in only one habitat or particular environment usually show many adaptations to that environment. • Organisms that live in a variety of different habitats usually do not have as many adaptations.
How many different types of habitat can you think of? Make a list.
Different types of habitat • • • Marine Arctic Desert: hot & cold Woodland / forest River / lake Tropical rainforest Grasslands Rocky Bogs / marshes Urban (gardens / parks) / farmland
Marine Habitat • Seas and oceans • Salty water • Warm and cold water
A Shark’s General Adaptations What are a shark’s general adaptations to life in an aquatic environment? streamlined shape to reduce friction when moving through water (morphology) fins provide stability, power and control (morphology) gills have a large surface area so that oxygen can be extracted from the surrounding water (morphology)
A Shark’s Specific Adaptations What are a shark’s specific adaptations to life as an aquatic predator? specialised sense organs can detect the sound, movement and electrical fields of other organisms (physiology) highly sensitive sense of smell that can detect drops of blood from miles away (physiology) lots of very sharp teeth that are constantly replaced (morphology) silver colouring underneath acts as camouflage (morphology)
Cold climates Temperatures: • arctic winter can dip to -51 o. C • warmest month is between 10 o. C and 0 o. C • Often permanent snow & ice
Animals in Cold Climates • Arctic animals must keep themselves warm to survive. • You lose body heat through your body surface, mainly your skin. • Arctic animals have developed many adaptations to help them survive…
What do these animals have in common?
Adaptations to the cold climate • Thick oily fur coats • Layers of blubber under the skin • May change colour in the summer • Small ears • Large furry feet • Often longer snout • Rounded body shape
Body Shape Have fat, round body shapes with short legs. Why is this important?
Surface Area to Volume Ratio • Animals lose heat from the body surfaces that are in contact with the surrounding air/water. • Reducing the contact surface reduces heat loss • Increasing the surface increases heat loss
Surface Area to Volume Ratio Hidden surfaces are exposed Larger SA: Vol Small SA: Vol (cold climates) (hot climates)
Hot Desert Climates Temperatures: • Can reach 45 – 50 o. C during the day • Can fall below 0 o. C at night • Less than 25 cm rain a year
Animals in Dry Climates • Animals in dry climates have to keep themselves cool to survive. • They also have to cope with a lack of water.
What do these animals have in common?
Adaptations to the desert climate • • • Large thin ears Little body fat Thin silky fur Long limbs to help spread the heat They often are only active at night More elongated body shape
Have more elongated body shapes and long legs
Plants in Cold Climates http: //www. bbc. co. uk/scotland/learningzone/clips/5506/ • ‘land of the midnight sun’ Cold all year except for short period over the summer No trees • temperature range = - 54 to 21° C Alaska, Siberia, Scandinavia
• Plants are small - usually less than 12 inches tall to avoid wind • Plants are dark - helps them absorb solar heat. • Small waxy leaves / needles • Some plants are covered with hair • Some plants grow in clumps for protection • Some plants have dish-like flowers that follow the sun
Saxifrage Bearberry Arctic Willow Arctic flower
Trees • many trees are evergreen • many trees have needle-like leaves to lose less water • waxy coating on needles • needles are dark in colour • trees have branches that droop downward
Plants in Dry Climates Adaptations: Can you think of any? Make a list.
• Some plants store water in their stems or leaves = succulents • Some plants have no leaves • Long root systems spread out wide or go deep into the ground to absorb water
• Spines to protect from being eaten • Plants slower growing so require less energy • Flowers that open at night lure pollinators who tend to be active during the night • Hair help shade the plant, reducing water loss
LI: To identify how animals and plants are adapted to suit their environment in different ways and that adaptation may lead to evolution. Divide a page in your science book into four sections. Choose a plant from a cold climate, a plant from a hot climate, an animal from a cold climate and an animal from a hot climate. Draw a picture of each and label with their adaptations.