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ACL Teen Centers School-Based Health Centers serving Acoma, Laguna & To’Hajiilee since 1983
Assessment of the To’Hajiilee Life Skills Training Program NNR 06 -197 Findings and Recommendations Presented to Na’nizhoozhi Center, Inc. October 29, 2010
To’Hajiilee LST – Navajo IRB • September 2006 - The ACL Teen Centers Prevention Services submitted a study application to the Navajo Nation Human Research Review Board (NN HRRB). • The NN HRRB sets forth "the conditions under which investigators, physicians, researchers, and others may perform research activities on living human subjects within the territorial jurisdiction of the Navajo Nation”. • NN HRRB is under the auspices of the Navajo Nation Department of Health, Window Rock, AZ
To’Hajiilee LST – Navajo IRB • January 2007 – NN HRRB granted approval. • January 2007 - The To’Hajiilee LST program was implemented at To’Hajiilee Community School. • Annual Reports are given to NN HRRB. • Evaluation results are from Spring 2010. • Recommendations for program improvement
To’Hajiilee LST - Program • The “Life Skills Training” (LST) Program is a schoolbased and evidence-based substance abuse prevention curriculum. • The LST Program utilizes the “Life Skill Training Program curriculum developed by Gilbert Botvin, Ph. D. • The program aims to help reduce and delay the onset of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD) among 3 rd and 5 th grade students attending To’Hajiilee Community School.
To’Hajiilee LST - Program • Research has shown that students who develop skills in three domains are far less likely to engage in a wide range of high-risk behavior. • Three types of skill sets include: 1. Drug Resistance Skills 2. Personal Self-Management Skills 3. General Social Skills
To’Hajiilee LST - Program • A 10 -week program for 3 rd & 5 th grade students attending To’Hajiilee Community School (TCS) • One session per week for 45 -60 minutes • Pre/Post-surveys are administered (w/ signed parental consent forms) • Students complete a student workbook and engage in experiential activities • Incentives and Certificates of Completion are given to students and teachers
To’Hajiilee LST - Program • 47 students participated in the Life Skills Program * 22 – 3 rd grade students * 25 – 5 th grade students • Staff include: 1. Health Educator 2. Data Analyst 3. Program Manager 4. Evaluator
To’Hajiilee - Surveys • “Life Skills Training Health Survey” Constructs: * Exposure to Tobacco * Relationships w/ Friends * Knowledge of Tobacco * Life Skills * Decision-Making * Risk-taking Behaviors * Advertising Knowledge * Self-Esteem • “New Mexico K-6 Youth Instrument” Constructs: * Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug use * Risk of Harm * Intentions to Smoke * Parents and Youth Attitudes of ATOD use
To’Hajiilee LST – Highlights of Results Life Skills Training Health Survey (3 rd and 5 th grade ) • Of the 47 students, 45 students had parental consent to take the pre/post-surveys Ø Ages 8 -12 Ø 51% - Male Ø 49% - Female
• To’Hajiilee LST Highlights of Evaluation Results From pre-survey to post-survey: * Students increased their knowledge about tobacco use and about illness and disease related to smoking. * Students increased their advertising knowledge. Example – Students answered “True” to “Some commercials try to trick you into buying things that you do not want”.
To’Hajiilee LST Highlights of Evaluation Results • From pre-survey to post-survey: * Students showed a statistically significance increase in knowledge about stress and its effects. * Students were more likely to agree that “worrying too much can cause you to get sick”.
To’Hajiilee LST Highlights of Evaluation Results • From pre-survey to post-survey: * Students increased their exposure to tobacco from friends and family. Students may not have any control over having family members smoke, but they may be able to disengage from those who are smokers, in an effort to lower their exposure to second hand tobacco smoke.
To’Hajiilee LST – Highlights of Results NM K-6 Youth Instrument (5 th grade) • Of the 25 students, 16 students had parental consent to take the pre/post-surveys Ø Ages 10 -12 Ø 56% - Female Ø 44% - Male
To’Hajiilee LST – Highlights of Evaluation Results NM K-6 Youth Instrument (5 th grade) * In the pre-test, students reported no Alcohol, Tobacco and other Drug use (ATOD) in the past 30 -days.
To’Hajiilee LST Highlights of Evaluation Results * In the post-test, a few students reported they had tried smoking and marijuana. This is more likely an effect of the maturation of the children and reaching an age where experimentation is developing.
To’Hajiilee LST Highlights of Evaluation Results • From pre-survey to post-survey: • * Most of the students stated they would not bend to peer pressure to try smoking. * Of the students who had not tried ATOD, all of them indicated they would not start smoking soon.
Recommendations & Lessons Learned to Enhance the School-based Program • Invite Community Facilitators to co-teach the sessions & give Certificates of Appreciation • Work closely with a school personnel, such as the Elementary Counselor • Offer a classroom incentive • Give “pre” thank-you gift/incentive to school liaison and teachers
Recommendations & Lessons Learned to Enhance the School-based Program • Be flexible regarding data collection appointments • Include experiential activities (hands-on, storytelling, indoor/outdoor activities, etc. ) • Have Facilitators/Health Educators complete the Facilitators’ Implementation forms
Recommendations & Lessons Learned to Enhance the School-based Program • Collect Student Satisfaction Surveys • Distribute “Certificate of Completion” • Give “post” thank-you gift/incentives to school liaison and teachers
Recommendations & Lessons Learned to Enhance the School-based Program • Develop a brief summary report on the program and its evaluation results • Report program updates and evaluation results to your stakeholders • Include brief summary report in next year’s parental consent packets. . It starts all over again…
Questions? Thank you. UNM/Acoma-Canoncito-Laguna (ACL) Teen Centers Prevention Research Center MSC 11 -6145 2703 Frontier N. E. , Suite 120 Albuquerque, NM 87131 Tele. 505 -272 -4462 / Fax. 505 -272 -4857