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Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs October 1, 2015 Supporting Students with Disabilities Access and Disability Services Harvard Graduate School of Education Eileen Berger [email protected] harvard. edu César Valencia & Jenny Reuter , ADS technology Specialists
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Workshop Overview • • • Brief overview of Laws governing compliance: 504, ADAAA • US national demographics • Disability Defined by Civil Rights Laws Models of disability services in the US Access and Disability Services at HGSE • Inclusion practices and philosophy • Registration Process • Clinical documentation, eligibility • Services offered, notification and collaboration • Student voices • ADS technology Lab • From equipment and software procurement to services • IHED student Organization • Shared leadership opportunities • Universal Design In Professor Hehir’s Classroom Discussion, Q&A
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Access and Disability Services, faculty & student collaborations, community • • Inclusion becomes a Community Commitment – SWDs provide leadership – Event planning around social justice issues – e. g. Glee, UN NGOs, International Disability conference Universal Design Features in Courses and Administrative policy – Faculty engage in planning accommodations that meet academic standards – Work collaboratively with students and ADS – Registration policy, student health care, financial aid , academic deans • Disability included in the definition of diversity – Learning from our students –joining the diversity dialogues – Accessing diversity innovation funds – Membership and advocacy in multicultural events • Diversity conversation, programs and symposia – Reframing disability through the lens of positive psychology – The power of positive images- GLEE Video!
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Learning Outcomes • Appreciate the extent of collaboration necessary to meet the needs of our students with disabilities. • Understand the external laws and internal policies, procedures and values that guides the work in Disability Services. • Gain familiarity with the students we serve, their disabilities, and accommodations. • Become aware of the transitional issues for our students with disabilities as they proceed from graduate school to professional life.
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Media Portrayal of Individuals with Disabilities GLEE
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs College Student Demographics • 11 % of all undergraduates reported having a disability. (U. S. DOE, 2012) • 3. 3 % of first-year students reported having a learning disability. (Pryor, 2008) • 15% percent of all students reporting a disability indicated a mental illness/psychological or psychiatric condition. (U. S. DOE, 2009) • 18% of all students reporting a disability indicated ADD or ADHD and 31% indicated a specific learning disability. (U. S. DOE, 2009) • 11% of all students reporting a disability indicated a health impairment. (U. S. DOE, 2009) • 12% of college students reported a diagnosis of anxiety or treatment for anxiety over the past 12 months (ACHA, 2011)
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Federal Laws • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 • Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA, 1974) • The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 • The Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments of 2008 -EEOC regulation 2012 • Section 255 of the Communications Act (2009) • 21 st Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act (2010)
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Federal Laws (continued) • Fair Housing Act Amendments of 1988 • Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) • Air Carrier Access Act, Urban Mass Transit Act (UMTA) and related transportation laws • Architectural Access Codes: -Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) -Uniform Federal Access Standards (UFAS)
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Other Relevant Laws, etc. • State Law -Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 272 – 98 • Local Ordinances • College and University policies, rules, regulations, guidelines, and procedures
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Department of Education) “No otherwise qualified individual with a handicap…shall, solely by reason of his or her handicap, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. ”
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs ADA Title III – Public Accommodations “…no individual shall be discriminated against on the basis of disability in the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations of any place of public accommodation by any person who owns, leases (or leases to), or operates a place of public accommodation. ”
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 272 - 98 “Whoever makes any distinction, discrimination or restriction on account of …any physical or mental disability…relative to the admission of any person to, or his treatment in any place of pubic accommodation…shall be punished… All persons shall have the right to full and equal accommodations, advantages, facilities and privileges of any place of public accommodation…”
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) • Emerged from Civil Rights Act of 1964 in conjunction with laws protecting the rights of women and older Americans • The ADA is a civil rights act and not an entitlement program like the Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; 1975. PL 101 -476) • It is a statute of the Department of Justice
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs ADA • ADA guarantees that individuals with disabilities who would otherwise be qualified will not be denied access to work and educational opportunities • It is an outcome-neutral law that ensures access but not necessarily success • There is an emphasis on equal opportunity rather than optimizing academic performance or guaranteeing success
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs 1/1/09 ADAAA • “This bill better defines who Congress intends to meet the definition of disabled. It clarifies that mitigating measures, such as medication, may not be taken into account. It provides guidance as to what is a major life activity. And, most critically, it lowers the threshold for how limiting a condition must be, and insists that courts interpret the ADA broadly. For all these reasons, this bill returns the focus of the ADA to where it was meant to be – on whether a person with a disability is being discriminated against. ” http: //harkin. senate. gov/blog/? i=f 0 b 8 bd 21 -242 b 4058 -bf 5 a-3 dd 134 ad 0045 Harkin Statement On House Passage Of The ADA Amendments Act • And, we would add – to assure that individuals with disabilities are receiving reasonable accommodations.
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Definition of a Disability • A physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, a record of such impairment, or being regarded as having such an impairment. • The impairment must “substantially limit” the student’s ability to participate in and/or benefit from the educational programs and services of the college. • Substantial limitation is determined by the nature of the impairment, the impact on major life activities, and the student’s current abilities and limitations.
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Functional Limitations • • Maintaining stamina Maintaining concentration Difficulty staying organized/meeting deadlines Memory deficits Interacting with others Difficulty handling stress/emotions Attendance issues-hospitalizations, episodic health issues medication side effects, symptoms • Issues with adapting to change • Cognitive and mobility challenges: take additional time to organize, or get to class; sometimes more than double time • Side effects from medications
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Major Life Activities The Amendments expands Section 504’s original non-inclusive list of major life activities so that it clearly includes major bodily functions such as normal cell growth, digestive, bowel, bladder, neurological, brain, respiratory, circulatory, endocrine, immune system; and reproductive functions. Additionally it expands the more familiar list of activities (caring for oneself, performing manual tasks, seeing, hearing, eating, sleeping, walking, standing, lifting, bending, speaking, breathing, learning, reading, communicating, and working) by adding concentrating and thinking.
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs When is an impairment a disability? EEOC redefines Disability under ADAAA 1. “In general. An impairment is a disability within the meaning of this section if it ‘substantially limits’ the ability of an individual to perform a major life activity as compared to most people in the general population. An impairment need not prevent, or significantly or severely restrict, the individual from performing a major life activity in order to be considered a disability. ” Proposed 29 CFR 1630. 2(j)(1). 2. “[T]he term ‘substantially limits, ’ including the application of that term to the major life activity of working, shall be construed in favor of broad coverage of individuals to the maximum extent permitted by the terms of the ADA and should not require extensive analysis. ” Proposed 29 CFR 1630. 2(j)(2)(i). 3. “An individual whose impairment substantially limits a major life activity need not also demonstrate a limitation in the ability to perform activities of central importance to daily life in order to be considered an individual with a disability. ” Proposed 29 CFR. 1630. 2(j)(2)(ii).
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs When is an impairment a disability? EEOC redefines Disability under ADAAA 4. “An impairment that ‘substantially limits’ one major life activity need not limit other major life activities in order to be considered a disability. ” Proposed 29 CFR. 1630. 2(j)(2)(iii). 5. “The comparison of an individual’s limitation to the ability of most people in the general population often may be made using a commonsense standard, without resorting to scientific or medical evidence. ” Proposed 29 CFR 1630. 2(j)(2)(iv). 6. “The ‘transitory and minor’ exception in § 1630. 2(l) of this part (the ‘regarded as’ prong of the definition of ‘disability’) does not establish a durational minimum for the definition of ‘disability’ under § 1630. 2(g)(1) (actual disability) or § 1630. 2(g)(2) (record of a disability). An impairment may substantially limit a major life activity even if it lasts, or is expected to last, for fewer than six months. ” Proposed 29 CFR. 1630. 2(j)(2)(v). 7. “In determining whether an individual has a disability, the focus is on how a major life activity is substantially limited, not on what an individual can do in spite of an impairment. ” Proposed 29 CFR. 1630. 2(j)(2)(vi).
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Disability Studies Models of Disability: • Medical Model: Problem is with the person; need to be fixed; only professionals can help. An interpersonal model. • Social Model: Disability is neutral; barriers are socially constructed and exist in the environment; disability is part of the human experience; anyone can create change; change the environment and decrease disability. An environmental model. • Modified Social Model: Disability is neutral; positive psychology approach, collaborative support – clinical, academic, social advising and referrals and resources.
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Social Model Social model-focus Life satisfaction & subjective well-being High levels of quality of life People are disabled by being excluded from participation within mainstream society as the result of physical, organizational, and attitudinal barriers These barriers prevent equal access to education, employment, transport, housing, social/recreational activities, etc.
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Medical Model Stigma-driven research & practice Medical research focuses on depression, substance abuse, etc. Incomplete depiction of disability experience Disability is understood as an individual “problem” (i. e. , a personal tragedy) Undergirded by beliefs about an inherently lower quality of life Viewed through this stigmatized lens, disability is seen as something that should be eliminated
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Disability Studies (cont’d. ) • Cultural Model: Disability is defined by time, culture, ethnic group; disability is part of the human experience; attitudes about disability can teach us about our society. A social model. • Political Model: Disability is defined by law, policy, those who have power and resources; political and legal definitions reflect trends in society; distribute resources and redefine concepts like “deserving”. A law and politics model.
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs The Role of Disability Services • To ensure that the University is providing access to students with disabilities • To assist the University in applying standards set by ADA/ADAA and Section 504 legislation • To review documentation that supports a student’s claim of disability status • To support students with disabilities • To make recommendations with respect to necessary and reasonable accommodations to faculty and staff
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Disability Services Role (cont’d. ) • Dissemination of information about disability issues • Inform institution of legal obligations to provide access to programs, events and services • Keep institution informed about technological solutions and digital access (captioning, e-text, etc. ) • To provide accessible materials and alternate formats to students in class, programs and events. • Encourage inclusive practices and Universal Design features of courses to promote scaffolding for students with disabilities • Coaching, case management, counseling, referral, follow- up, advising, and advocacy
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs The Accommodation Process • Students must notify the institution that they have a disability or be referred to ADS. • Students must provide formal and specific documentation as to the nature of the disability and the functional limitations • The determination of a disability that qualifies a student for accommodations is a legal one, and not a medical one, and is based on a number of factors
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Right to Accommodations Students do not have the right to accommodations just because they ask for them The College has the right to insist that students follow the published procedures and policies for requesting accommodations Faculty and Staff can compromise the process by giving informal accommodations that have not been recommended by the Office of Disability Services
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Confidentiality at the College • Students have a right to confidentiality in the handling of their medical information • Disability Services informs the faculty with a Faculty Contact Form or ADS contact form the student hand delivers. This form indicates the student has met the eligibility criteria for a documented disability that warrants accommodations and outlines the specific accommodations. • Students are asked to follow up with professors • ADS meets with faculty for clarification as needed
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Roles and Responsibilities of Faculty Members • Be sure that accommodations are recommended and approved by the Access & Disability Services • Be supportive of students with disabilities and be especially protective of their right to confidentiality • Confidentiality is required even if the student over discloses clinical information • Contact ADS with any questions or concerns regarding a student’s disability status or accommodations
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Modifications to Curriculum and Teaching • Faculty are not required to fundamentally alter the nature and content of their courses • Faculty are not required to make accommodations that will have an adverse impact on the academic integrity of courses • However, modifications that provide equal access must be and should be made (e. g. , extended time, substitutions, note takers, course adaptations)
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Essential Academic Requirements • Students must meet the essential academic requirements of the College • If a student’s disability limits their ability to meet essential requirements, the College will not be considered discriminatory in insisting s/he fulfill these requirements • This highlights the need formal and documented accommodations to ensure that a student is qualified to meet essential requirements
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Reasonable and appropriate accommodations • • Assistance with registration Audio/video stream of class CART, sign language interpreters Flexible attendance policies Reduced course load Course substitutions Flexible time (varies, ongoing/interactive process) assignments, testing, degree program, course incompletes(limited) • E-text, note takers, extended time, alternate formats for class materials, access technologies, Smart Pens
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Accommodations list (cont’d) • • • Access technologies-Elluminate software, Dragon Dictate, Kurzweil 3000 & 1000, JAWS Adjustments to degree requirements, policies, procedures coaching Testing accommodations/varied-separate environment, computer use, access software, frequent breaks, scribe, alternate test format, memory aids, etc. Separate room for technology use Specified seating Access to distance learning-access technologist work on web accessibility, NIMAS etc. , Elluminate Adjustments/modifications at practicum placements (reasonable and appropriate) Food and drink in class/breaks for meds/water/etc. Adjustments to policy and procedure • Housing & More+
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs ADS Accommodations Note takers “I would go back and discover that my notes were one big long brainstorm/mind map/fugue. So the DS notes were great. Key points, hooray!” Additional time to start with “…along when my first paper was due…” Access Technology “Until I got here I thought I was a fast enough typist. However, now that I’ve used dictation software I can’t imagine having to type a whole paper with just my hands!” Self accommodation: “Given the specific and detailed nature of the assignments, I would benefit from checklist. I copied the assignment into Word and modified it so it would be more my-learning-style. ”
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs ADS Connection With University Services Financial Aid: “I needed a loan to buy access software and a laptop. ” Library: “I used the writing consultant and research consultant thing a lot. Health Services: “I needed to increase my Ritalin-substitute; what was working before I got here wasn’t enough. ” “I had no problem taking my meds around other people. Quite few students carry around pill boxes for whatever. ” “Getting my head shrunk every week or so—very helpful. ”
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs ADS Connection With Advising • Contact ADS early: “Around about when my first paper was due (October 5, a day that will live in infamy for me), I was really glad that I had already started working with DS and had my DS paperwork in. ” • Peer advising: “I cannot tell you how important working with other students has been for me. I had never been in a “study group” before that didn’t involve prayer. ” • Faculty advising: “My faculty advisor is fabulous. This is a good thing, because I needed lots of advice. I had weekly meetings with my advisor. Amazing. ”
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs References • American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA-II) Reference Group Report – Fall 2011 • Pryor, J. H. , et. al. (2008). The American Freshman: National Norms Fall 2008. Higher Education Research Institute: Los Angeles. • U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System (PEQIS), “Students With Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, ” 2009 • U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Digest of Education Statistics, 2012 (2012 -001), Table 242. • • Berger, EC, 2005 HGSE AHEAD presentation GLEE film 20010 HGSE the power of personal narrative IHED conference
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Scaffolding the ladder to Academic Success Images – HGSE shield and ladder with the word “success” spelled out HGSE is a community that values the unique identity you bring to campus. Our collaborative approach and inclusive community helps to ensure that all students can participate in the full array of academic, cultural, and community activities available at Harvard. We at Access and Disability Services (ADS) provide accommodations and services for students with documented disabilities, injuries and other health issues on a case-by-case basis. The Access & Disabilities Services office provides services and support with care and concern for each individual student. We work cooperatively with Harvard Resources to ensure student academic and professional access. 41
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Access and Disability Services (ADS) • The purpose of this office is to provide reasonable and appropriate course or program accommodations for students with documented impairments to give equal opportunities and equal access under the following federal and state civil rights laws: – Section 504 of the Vocational Rehab Act of 1973 – Americans with Disabilities Act, 1990 – ADA Amendments Act, 2008 – Telecommunications access laws, 1998 – Relevant Massachusetts general laws 42
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs What Makes ADS Unique? • Strengths-based Philosophy – Influenced by positive psychology • Access Technology Lab – Work with staff, faculty, and IT to go beyond ADAAA compliance in providing access to digital information • Creative Partnerships – International Higher Education and Disability (IHED) student organization – National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA) professional organization – Association on Higher Education and Disability (AHEAD) professional organization • Positive Relationships – Collaborative process with students, faculty, and teaching fellows 43
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Access and the Law • Law requires that for students to be eligible for services, they must 1) make a request to ADS, and 2) provide any existing documentation of a disability – If students do not possess current documents or have not been assessed, our office can help walk through this process • Disability is a mental or physical impairment that limits one or more major life activities, regardless of duration or condition – Chronic illnesses that are episodic are also classified as disabilities under this definition • Relevant legislation: – – – Americans with Disabilities Act, 1990 ADA Amendments Act, 2008 Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act, 1973 EEOC Regulations, 2012 Massachusetts General Laws 44
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Some Accommodations, Auxiliary Aids & Services We Offer • Confidential advising, counseling & coaching • Adjustments or modifications of academic policy, process, and procedure (e. g. reduced course load) • Planning of clinical support and clinical referrals • Accessible housing • Software and hardware necessary to enable you to study, including text-to-speech, screen magnifiers and other alternate format • Anonymous e-text note taking system • Conversion of printed materials to e-text & other alternate materials • Transportation around campus, including wheelchair and mobility device assistance 45 • Writing and academic organizational strategies and coaching Images – close-up of person using braille and person using a wheelchair
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Some Examples of Covered Disabilities Arthritis Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder Back Impairments Bipolar Disorder Brain Injuries (TBI) o Concussive Disorder Cancer Carpal Tunnel Cerebral Palsy Crohn’s Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chronic Pain Cognitive Disabilities Cumulative Trauma Disorders Diabetes Dyslexia Dystonia Eating Disorders Epilepsy or Seizure Disorder Executive Functioning Deficits Fibromyalgia Syndrome Hearing Loss / Deafness Heart Conditions Hepatitis HIV/AIDS IBS Learning Disabilities Lupus Mental Health Impairments o Anxiety o Bipolar o Depression o Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder o Personality Disorder o Schizophrenia o et al. Mobility Impairments Migraine / Headaches Multiple Chemical Sensitivity or Environmental Illness Multiple Sclerosis Muscular Dystrophy Myasthenia Gravis Neurological / Complex Disorders Parkinson's Disease Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Repetitive Stress Injuries Respiratory Impairments Seasonal Affective Disorder Sleep Disorders Vision Impairments / Blindness 46
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs How To Get Started at H. G. S. E. 1. Contact us by phone, email, or drop in 2. ADS will provide you with a Request for Services Form 3. Provide acceptable documentation by following guidelines for documentation 4. Make an appointment with ADS at your earliest convenience Access and Disability Services 124 A&B Gutman Library (within Office of Student Affairs) (617) 495 -9608 [email protected] harvard. edu We recognize that the choice to self-disclose is a very personal one. You can 47 be assured that all conversations with our office will remain confidential.
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Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Guidelines for Documentation • • The credentials of the evaluator(s) A diagnostic statement identifying the disability A description of the diagnostic methodology used A description of the expected progression or stability of the disability • A description of current and past accommodations, services, and/or medications • Recommendations for accommodations, adaptive devices, and assistive services and compensatory strategies *Adapted from ahead. org 52
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Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Three Innovations and Partnerships • Creating and maintaining an in-house Access Technology Lab • Partnering with faculty to promote and support UDL efforts • Providing opportunities for student engagement and community education 56
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs In-house Access Technology Lab • Lab Equipment • Software • Hardware • Tech Services • E-text conversion • Captioning • Note-taking 57
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs ADS Tech Services Office Equipment 58
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Scanner (Canon DR-7090 C) $4000 59
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Computer $500 60
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs ABBYY Fine. Reader $119 61
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Camtasia Studio $180 62
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs JAWS Professional $1000 63
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs What is “Accessible”? ‘“Accessible’ means a person with a disability is afforded the opportunity to acquire the same information, engage in the same interactions, and enjoy the same services as a person without a disability in an equally effective and equally integrated manner, with substantially equivalent ease of use. A person with a disability must be able to obtain the information as fully, equally, and independently as a person without a disability. Although this might not result in identical ease of use compared to that of persons without disabilities, it still must ensure equal opportunity to the educational benefits and opportunities afforded by the technology and equal treatment in the use of such technology. ” -OCR Letter, Youngstown State University, 2013 64
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs What does ADS Tech do? Access technology is of primary importance to our students with disabilities, and we work with staff, faculty, and IT to go beyond ADAAA compliance in providing access to digital information. We strive to present formats accessible to all users. Access technology is an ADS accommodation resource dedicated to providing HGSE students with disabilities with: • Course materials (e. g. Power. Points, projected materials) • Research materials • Library materials • Access to classroom activities (e. g. auditory, visual amplification) Break free from academic access issues! 65
Access and Disability Services, Office of of Student Affairs 1. E-text Conversion Process (at least 2 weeks) for Books, i. Pa©s, e-Research links 2. Power. Point and other lecture-presented materials (at least 2 weeks) 3. Captioning Course Videos/Films 66
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs 4. Note-Taking 5. Transcription Services (at least 2 weeks) 6. Software/Hardware Installation and Training 67
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs UDL in Action at H. G. S. E. in Professor Hehir’s Classroom 68
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Universal Design for Learning • What is UDL? The term UDL means a scientifically valid framework for guiding educational practice that: A) Provides flexibility in the ways information is presented, in the ways students respond or demonstrate knowledge and skills, and in the ways students are engaged; and B) Reduces barriers in instruction, provides appropriate accommodations, supports, and challenges, and maintains high achievement expectations for all students, including students with disabilities and students who are limited English proficient Higher Education Opportunity Act 2008 CAST, 2011 www. cast. org 69
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs Professor Hehir’s Application of UDL • • Professor Hehir creates an inclusive environment that provides a layered support system with multiple opportunities for learning, comprehension, and scaffolding Provides Multiple Means of Representation – Videotapes class lecture for student review – Embeds hyperlinks to electronic articles in syllabus – Uses CAST’s Bookbuilder (bookbuilder. cast. org) to assist students interpret and understand dense articles – Written assignments are based on real-life scenarios – Combines class sessions into a lecture/discussion format to make it interactive Provides Multiple Means of Action and Expression – Introduces students to tools and access technologies through demonstration of “Tools of the Week” – Uses a volunteer student note-taking system where each week 3 students post their notes publicly – Students respond to a Question of the Week in an online forum Provides Multiple Means of Engagement – Offers students six ways to participate in class (e. g. face-to-face, synchronous, and asynchronous options) – Invites guest speakers to visit the class – Offers students three choices for each written assignment and scaffolds choices – Assigns a variety of types of reading (e. g. personal narrative, practical guidebook, dense 70 academic article)
Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs How ADS Supports UDL feature/ Professor’s practice Reading materials Professor assigns e-books Professor embeds hyperlinks to articles in syllabus ADS converts paper copies of books to alternate formats ADS captions course videos ADS provides text conversion and image description for slides, videos, and diagrams ADS offers CART/transcription and/or interpreters ADS offers notes for students with 71 disabilities Lecture and course materials Professor videotapes class lecture for student review Professor uses contrasting colors on Power. Point slides for most visibility Professor uses videos and diagrams to promote nonlinguistic supports Professor wears microphone and passes it to all speakers ADS Access Technology Note-taking Professor implements a student volunteer note-taking system
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Access and Disability Services, Office of Student Affairs International Higher Education & Disability (IHED) Student Organization • What is IHED? – Student organization that puts on 8 events per year + annual symposium to raise awareness about current issues faced by people with disabilities around the world • Why join IHED? – Opportunity for leadership, contribute to diversity dialogue, work collaboratively with ADS, faculty, and other Harvard organizations, meet disability advocates from all over the world • IHED partners with ADS office – Shared resources, consensus planning model, mentorship from ADS administrator • Collaborative leadership model – Core Executive Leadership Board, includes alumni support • Past programming – United Nations, Institute for Human Centered Design, WGBH, Dining in the Dark, Diversa (São Paulo, Brazil), UNICEF-Brazil, Harvard Law School Project on 73 Disability, and HGSE OSA
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American Association of Colleges and Universities Conference name March 2015 Michael Berger Ph. D. , Simmons College Eileen Connell Berger, MS Ed. , Harvard Graduate School of Education Neal E. Lipsitz, Ph. D. , College of the Holy Cross
NASPA National Conference March 2015 New Orleans, Louisiana
A New Conceptual Framework for Assessing the Educational Experience of Students with Disabilities Michael Berger, MS, Ph. D. , MBA, Simmons College Eileen Connell Berger, MS Ed. , Ed. D(ABD) Harvard Graduate School of Education Neal E. Lipsitz, Ph. D. , College of the Holy Cross
Why do SWD require a special framework for assessment? • Extraordinary issues of access are paramount in SWD college experience because of physical, cognitive, and sensory functional limitations that affect: – Academic performance – Social integration – Learning new skills and strategies • Traditional metrics are often based on “post experience” evaluations; – – Dropout rates Satisfaction surveys Exit interviews Lawsuits
Both formative and summative assessments are of values for SWD • Formative: occurs throughout the student’s tenure can be used for midcourse adjustments and modifications of accommodations • Formative: facilitates the participation of relevant stakeholders in the evaluation of their responsibilities (too much, not enough? ) • Summative: analysis can reveal structural weaknesses, gaps in coverage, duplication and inefficiencies
How does the student assemble the necessary support required for a successful college experience?
Stakeholder Concerns and Desired Outcomes • What would faculty be concerned about? • What would the student’s main concerns and goals? • What would be the disability provider’s major goals? • What would an administrative dean be concerned about? • What would the parents (especially for an undergraduate) be concerned about?
The Framework • We propose a framework based on various “lenses” through which different stakeholders involved in the student’s success view their role in the student’s college experience. • Stakeholder roles and responsibilities have been identified for the optimum efficient and effective delivery of services and student success. • This framework is used as the basis for the analysis of a case study, with the goal of analyzing strengths and weaknesses of disability services delivery and institutional response, and degree of student success.
The Conceptual Framework
Examples of Stakeholder Roles and Responsibilities Lens Attitudes Student Faculty Disability Provider Administrator Parent Understands the Helps the student Works with students culture and balance service Promotes a culture of Supports students to clarify expectations inclusiveness with emotionally, and let imbedded needs with and expected expectations, contributions to the policy, programs and the student develop behavior, and use assumed standards class and school outreach self-advocacy inclusive pedagogy of behavior community Life Transition Recognizes that you are developing a personal identity with your specific functional limitations Inclusion Socialization Communicates Ensures that there Provides resources frequently with DSO Provides an inclusive are appropriate for accessibility and Sees their student atmosphere and as a "student" rather and Faculty on routes of accessiblity socialization: expectations and pedagogy to peers, facilities, buildings, events, than "disabled" experiences events, resources classrooms Provides counseling and support services Parents prohibited from advocating directly (FERPA)
Examples of Stakeholder Roles and Responsibilities Lens Student Faculty Disability Provider Administrator Parent New Pedagogies Works with faculty and DSO to ensure new pedagogies are accessible Technology Works with faculty and DSO to implement appropriate technology Disability Law Ensures that new pedagogy such as online or flipped classes, Works with faculty student centered and student to learning, and service- ensure that new learning are pedagogy is accessible by working accessible with the student and DSO Determines appropriate Provides technology software, Works with student to resources and training hardware, for DSO, faculty, and integrate technology auxiliary aids and into the learning students. Assures an service and experience accessible technology coordinate infrastructure delivery and training Understands Works with students rights and DSO to provide responsibilities, services consistent and limits of the with Disability Law. law. Understands definition of disability Understand definition of Informs students disability and of rights and Responsible for responsibilties differences college-wide policy under the law. between K-12 and compliance under Apprise and Higher Ed the law administration and law (entitlement faculty vs. antidiscrimination).
• Jacov’s initial problems were overcome by a number of factors that enabled him to successfully complete his degree. His personal drive to be successful, and his strong academic foundation and capabilities, his positive attitude, and his charismatic personality facilitated social and academic relationships that led to inclusion and socialization. • Jacov’s parents played an important role in his success. They galvanized relationships between academic and professional personnel, they emotionally supported Jacov’s setbacks and were financially able to provide services that initially were not provided to him. • With the appropriate academic accommodations, Javoc demonstrated strong in-class participation and academic excellence. This outstanding performance gave him the visibility and cache necessary for acceptance by the faculty, many of whom eventually became his mentors. • DS(ENG) provided services focused on physical access with minimal compliance with the law. They did not work with Jacov to create accessible residential, classroom, and social environments as the DS(A&S) later did. Their role and responsibilities in part were performed by the parents. • The Administration had a passive role and were not aware that programming, events, and policies relating to Diversity should include students with disabilities
Recommendations • Provide training in disability law and best practices for the administrators and the disability services in the Engineering School. • The administrators should be conversant in the University-wide policy on providing appropriate disability services. • The University should make available a uniform policy for providing disability services (or develop a uniform policy, if one does not exist. ) • DS(ENG) should respect and listen to the student’s experience in facing barriers in classes, programs, and facilities that preclude his academic participation and evaluation and social interactions. • DS(ENG) should teach and facilitate self-advocacy for SWD. • DS(ENG) should partner with the faculty and administration to provide programs and policy changes that would support students with severe disabilities.