Academic writing styles Academic writing styles has been

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Academic writing styles ‛Academic writing styles’ has been developed by Vitae © 2009 Careers

Academic writing styles ‛Academic writing styles’ has been developed by Vitae © 2009 Careers Research and Advisory Centre (CRAC) Limited. Please refer to www. vitae. ac. uk/resourcedisclaimer for full conditions of use.

Workshop objectives • Discuss the general aspects of academic writing and the structure of

Workshop objectives • Discuss the general aspects of academic writing and the structure of an argument • Consider the accessibility and readability of academic writing • Develop a text analysis strategy for theses in their discipline in order to influence their own writing ‛Academic writing styles’ has been developed by Vitae © 2009 Careers Research and Advisory Centre (CRAC) Limited. Please refer to www. vitae. ac. uk/resourcedisclaimer for full conditions of use.

‛To be a successful writer I know of only two methods; read a lot

‛To be a successful writer I know of only two methods; read a lot and write a lot’ Stephen King ‛Academic writing styles’ has been developed by Vitae © 2009 Careers Research and Advisory Centre (CRAC) Limited. Please refer to www. vitae. ac. uk/resourcedisclaimer for full conditions of use.

What makes academic writing good? • Content - original, sound research, timely, valuable, justifiable,

What makes academic writing good? • Content - original, sound research, timely, valuable, justifiable, replicable • Selection - (WHAT is included, and in how much detail. ) Focused, in sufficient detail that someone else could replicate • Organisation - logical, following a conventional pattern for article or thesis • Presentation - appropriate writing style, choices of words and phrases. Grammar, punctuation, spelling. Visually: does it look good on the page? Typography, layout, clear diagrams ‛Academic writing styles’ has been developed by Vitae © 2009 Careers Research and Advisory Centre (CRAC) Limited. Please refer to www. vitae. ac. uk/resourcedisclaimer for full conditions of use.

Structure of an argument Data So, Qualifier , Claim/conclusion Since Unless Warrant On account

Structure of an argument Data So, Qualifier , Claim/conclusion Since Unless Warrant On account of Backing Rebuttal From Toulmin, S. (1958, updated 2003) ‛The Uses of Argument’, Cambridge University Press. ‛Academic writing styles’ has been developed by Vitae © 2009 Careers Research and Advisory Centre (CRAC) Limited. Please refer to www. vitae. ac. uk/resourcedisclaimer for full conditions of use.

Michelle was born in Northern Ireland So, presumably , Michelle is a British subject

Michelle was born in Northern Ireland So, presumably , Michelle is a British subject Since A person born in NI will be a British subject On account of Unless Both her parents were born in Eire, or she has become an Irish citizen The following statutes and legal provisions… Data Michelle was born in Northern Ireland Question to be discussed - Is Michelle Irish? ‛Academic writing styles’ has been developed by Vitae © 2009 Careers Research and Advisory Centre (CRAC) Limited. Please refer to www. vitae. ac. uk/resourcedisclaimer for full conditions of use.

Accessibility and readability • Research* suggests that influential papers are often more readable, eg

Accessibility and readability • Research* suggests that influential papers are often more readable, eg Watson and Crick’s DNA structure paper • Word can assess readability • Spelling and grammar options • Fog factor assessment • Rule of thumb: shorter words and shorter sentences *Hartley J. (2004), On writing scientific articles in English. ‛Science Foundation in China’, 11(2): 53 -6. ‛Academic writing styles’ has been developed by Vitae © 2009 Careers Research and Advisory Centre (CRAC) Limited. Please refer to www. vitae. ac. uk/resourcedisclaimer for full conditions of use.

Discipline variations These are usually centred around: • Author’s voice – first person or

Discipline variations These are usually centred around: • Author’s voice – first person or not • Structure – eg IMRa. D structure in science • Appropriate language – phraseology, choice of words ‛Academic writing styles’ has been developed by Vitae © 2009 Careers Research and Advisory Centre (CRAC) Limited. Please refer to www. vitae. ac. uk/resourcedisclaimer for full conditions of use.

Thesis extract ‛The research is based on interviews conducted with respondents within the Nottingham

Thesis extract ‛The research is based on interviews conducted with respondents within the Nottingham area, mostly carried out in their own homes. Nottingham is a perfect location to conduct research of this kind…’ Extract from introductory chapter* • What stands out? • What influence does that have on your view of this thesis? *Thanks to the original author for agreeing to this usage. Copyright remains with the original author. ‛Academic writing styles’ has been developed by Vitae © 2009 Careers Research and Advisory Centre (CRAC) Limited. Please refer to www. vitae. ac. uk/resourcedisclaimer for full conditions of use.

Understanding disciplinarity It is part of your development as a researcher to: • Analyse

Understanding disciplinarity It is part of your development as a researcher to: • Analyse and understand the variations • Be aware of the flexibility • Balance them with your preferred style Tip: start drafting work in an informal style to test your ideas and thoughts. Make it more formal as you redraft. ‛Academic writing styles’ has been developed by Vitae © 2009 Careers Research and Advisory Centre (CRAC) Limited. Please refer to www. vitae. ac. uk/resourcedisclaimer for full conditions of use.

Read a lot! • How many books/articles/theses have you read? • How many of

Read a lot! • How many books/articles/theses have you read? • How many of them impressed you in the way they were written? • What were your objectives for reading them? ‛Academic writing styles’ has been developed by Vitae © 2009 Careers Research and Advisory Centre (CRAC) Limited. Please refer to www. vitae. ac. uk/resourcedisclaimer for full conditions of use.

Analysing style • In groups develop a template for analysing texts in your disciplines

Analysing style • In groups develop a template for analysing texts in your disciplines • Consider: Macro level – whole piece Mid level – large sections Micro level – paragraphs Highlight key issues – any specific issues? ‛Academic writing styles’ has been developed by Vitae © 2009 Careers Research and Advisory Centre (CRAC) Limited. Please refer to www. vitae. ac. uk/resourcedisclaimer for full conditions of use.

What are you unclear of? • Prioritise the items in the analysis list that

What are you unclear of? • Prioritise the items in the analysis list that you aren’t clear of • Focus your analysis of the different genres you have to produce on these: - Thesis - Journal article - The different building blocks of each ‛Academic writing styles’ has been developed by Vitae © 2009 Careers Research and Advisory Centre (CRAC) Limited. Please refer to www. vitae. ac. uk/resourcedisclaimer for full conditions of use.

Your writing development • Use the same analysis on your writing - On which

Your writing development • Use the same analysis on your writing - On which features does it need development? - On which features is it already good enough? • Ways to develop - Write a lot and get feedback - Writers’ groups - One-to-one consultations (study support) ‛Academic writing styles’ has been developed by Vitae © 2009 Careers Research and Advisory Centre (CRAC) Limited. Please refer to www. vitae. ac. uk/resourcedisclaimer for full conditions of use.

Wrap up • Analyse texts as you read them - Your template - For

Wrap up • Analyse texts as you read them - Your template - For readability • Analyse your writing - Same template - For readability • Focus your efforts and others’ feedback on weaker areas ‛Academic writing styles’ has been developed by Vitae © 2009 Careers Research and Advisory Centre (CRAC) Limited. Please refer to www. vitae. ac. uk/resourcedisclaimer for full conditions of use.

Final thought Professor Jonathan Wolff suggests that academic writing is confined by conventions to

Final thought Professor Jonathan Wolff suggests that academic writing is confined by conventions to be dull! ‛A detective novel written by a good philosophy student would begin: ‛In this novel I shall show that the butler did it. ’ The rest will be just filling in the details’* *See http: //education. guardian. co. uk/higher/comment/story/0, , 2161629, 00. html ‛Academic writing styles’ has been developed by Vitae © 2009 Careers Research and Advisory Centre (CRAC) Limited. Please refer to www. vitae. ac. uk/resourcedisclaimer for full conditions of use.