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ACADEMIC VOCABULARY PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT - JULY 2018
NORMS • Be in the moment, present. • Be engaged – a good participant, partner, team member. • Be expectant – actively look for some things you can incorporate in your classroom. • Be respectful with technology. Bottom Line: What you do or don’t do with vocabulary instruction impacts students everyday!
LET’S TALK ABOUT VOCABULARY Fortune Cookie Activity Each team receives an envelope. One person draws a question (fortune), and makes one statement about the topic, then passes it on. The next person adds his or her own statement or responds to the previous statement. When everyone has responded to the first statement, another person draws from the envelope
“Vocabulary learning must occur in authentic contexts, “Vocabulary is the best single indicatorwith students having many opportunities to learn how of intellectual ability and an accurate target words interact with, garner meaning from, and support meanings of other words. ” predictor of success at school. ” W. B. Elley Students from low-income families are part of the at-risk population who have heard fewer words and may have brains that are not as cognitively efficient for some of the work ahead of them in school and in life. Research supports the need for these students to have some extra resources. Some words are not likely to become part of one’s vocabulary without direct instruction. In addition, effective vocabulary instruction helps students “Because each new word has to be studied and learned on its o understand what they must do and know in order to learn new words the larger your vocabulary becomes, the easier it will be to conn on their own (Stahl & Kapinus, 2001). a new word with words you already know, and thus remember i meaning. So your learning speed, or pace, should increase as your vocabulary grows. ” Johnson O’Connor
WHAT DOES THE RESEARCH SAY ABOUT VOCABULARY? • One of the key indicators of students' success in school, on standardized tests, and indeed, in life, is their vocabulary. The reason for this is simply that the knowledge anyone has about a topic is based on the vocabulary of that information (Marzano & Pickering, 2005)
FOR EXAMPLE Read the following sentence and see if you are able to determine what is being discussed. • A duct-less split can produce the exact amount of energy needed to temper an envelope. • If you are an engineer, you probably know that the sentence above refers to equipment and its capability of cooling a room.
Vocabulary Instruction The graph illustrates the research presented by Robert Marzano in his book, Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement.
I-Ready Vocabulary Percentage Below Level 100 90 80 70 60 54 50 45 38 40 30 51 52 40 38 28 24 20 10 0 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
I-Ready Vocabulary Percentage Below Level 100 90 Why do you think we are seeing an increase In the percentage of students below grade level with vocabulary in 5 -7 th grades? 80 70 60 54 50 45 38 40 30 51 52 40 38 28 24 20 10 0 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Reflect for a minute on your vocabulary instruction. Sorting Activity Effective Vocabulary Strategies vs. Vocabulary Strategies to Avoid
Quiet Reflection: Moving forward with vocabulary instruction. • How often do your vocabulary activities mirror the effective strategies side? • Are there vocabulary practices you have been using that you could replace with more effective strategies?
In 1985, Beck and Mc. Keown suggested that every literate person has a vocabulary consisting of three levels (Beck, Mc. Keown, & Kucan, 2002). • book, girl, sad, clock, baby, dog, • coincidence, masterpiece, absurd, industrious, benevolent • epidermis, liquidated damages, jurisprudence, neuroplasticity
GOOD VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION • helps children gain ownership of words, instead of just learning them well enough to pass a test. • provides multiple exposures through rich and varied activities to meaningful information about the word (Stahl & Kapinus, 2001)
THE “HOW” OF TEACHING VOCABULARY EFFECTIVELY Strategic Plan suggested by Marzano and Pickering in their book Building Academic Vocabulary
1. BEGIN WITH A STORY OR EXPLANATION OF THE TERM. MODELING HOW YOU USE THE WORD IN YOUR LIFE OR IN CONVERSATION MAY BE HELPFUL TO STUDENTS. • For example: You might say, “A scruple is a twinge of guilt felt when one wants to do something that one shouldn’t. A scrupulous person is someone who has scruples and won’t do something that is wrong or dishonest. Some people have no scruples and will do whatever is necessary to further their own purposes. They are unscrupulous.
TRY IT: WITH A PARTNER – Decide who is Modeling each word. Think for a moment how you would model the word for students. Use other forms of the word in your modeling. Partner A models his/her word for Partner B, and Then Partner B models his/her word for Partner A. Dishevel (di SHEV ul) v. Mottle (MOT el) v. - to make untidy; to disarrange - to mark with spots or blotches the hair or clothing of or different shades of colors
2. HAVE STUDENTS PUT INFORMATION INTO THEIR OWN WORDS. This process, sometimes called "recoding, " is necessary to make sure students understand the word. It is a vital step in the memory process as it asks the students to actively process the information. Skipping this step can be disastrous as students may have a misconception that will be placed in long-term memory through incorrect rehearsals (Sprenger, 2005).
MARK SADOSKI AND ALLAN PAIVIO SUGGEST THAT INFORMATION IS STORED IN THE BRAIN IN TWO FORMS. LOGOGENS • Store packages that use language • For example, a logogen for the word narrator might contain • sentences that use the word, IMAGENS • Store packages that use pictures or images • Imagens for the word narrator could contain • other words related to the word, • image-based information, • titles of stories or plays that feature a prominent narrator, or • are often very rich, and • other language-based information. • might include sounds and smells associated with a concept, in addition to mental pictures.
TRY IT: HOW WOULD YOU PUT THE DEFINITION FOR THE FOLLOWING WORD INTO YOUR OWN WORDS? • Gastronomy (ga STRON ah mee) n. - the art of good eating - other form(s) - gastronomic ***THINK, PAIR, SHARE***
3. ASK STUDENTS TO DRAW A PICTURE OR A GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF THE WORD. ACCORDING TO RUBY PAYNE (2009), IF STUDENTS CANNOT DRAW IT, THEY REALLY DON'T KNOW IT.
Method Term Sketch a cartoon or vignette with a character using the term. If a term is abstract, use speech bubbles to show a character is a cartoon might use the term. explicit Sketch a graphic for the term. If a term is abstract, sketch a graphic that depicts the meaning of it. logical Picture
CREATE A VISUAL REPRESENTATION (NONLINGUISTIC) REPRESENTATION OF ONE OF THE FOLLOWING TERMS. Mete (MEET) v. Nullify (NUL ih fy) v. - to distribute by or as - to make useless; cancel; undo if by measure; allot
4. ENGAGE STUDENTS PERIODICALLY IN ACTIVITIES THAT HELP THEM ADD TO THEIR KNOWLEDGE OF THE TERM IN VOCABULARY NOTEBOOKS.
IDEAS TO KEEP IT FRESH • Comparing and Contrasting: ______ and _______ are similar because they both: • ______________ and _______ are different because: • _____________ is _____________, while ___________ is ____________. *Could also use Venn diagram to compare/contrast two terms
IDEAS TO KEEP IT FRESH • Comparing and Contrasting: Example Circles and spheres are similar because they both: • Have circumferences, radii, diameters, and surface areas • Have perfect symmetry Circles and spheres are different because: • A circle is two-dimensional, while a sphere is three-dimensional. • A circle does not have volume while a sphere does have volume. *Could also use Venn diagram to compare/contrast two terms
TRY IT: COMPARE AND CONTRAST EITHER OF THE FOLLOWING PAIRS. • polygon - square • adage - idiom • Find someone who was born in the same month as you and share your comparisons and contrasts.
IDEAS TO KEEP IT FRESH • Create analogies with vocabulary terms. Identify relationship between two items or concepts. Examples: adjective is to noun as adverb is to verb (the first modifies the second) hilt is to sword as index is to book (the first is a part of the second)
TRY IT: CREATE AN ANALOGY WITH EITHER OF THE FOLLOWING TERMS. • Respite (RES pit) n. – delay; postpone; brief interval of rest • Enmity (EN mi tee) n. – hostility; deep-seated hatred ***Relationships: synonyms, antonyms, degree, parts of a whole, person and object used/action, etc.
IDEAS TO KEEP IT FRESH • Create Metaphors (state one thing is another unlike thing) with vocabulary terms. Identify similarities/connections and share reasoning. Example: Common denominators are the dating websites of math because in the same way that common denominators make it easier to add fractions, dating websites make it easier for couples to pair up. ***We do this for kids all the time Mitochondria---Instead, let them do it!
TRY IT: CREATE A METAPHOR FOR EITHER OF THE FOLLOWING TERMS. Adjective Interger
IF YOU DIDN’T ALREADY KNOW ONE/SOME OF THESE WORDS, ARE YOU MORE LIKELY TO REMEMBER IT/THEM NOW? WHY?
5. PERIODICALLY ASK STUDENTS TO DISCUSS THE TERMS WITH ONE ANOTHER. • Role Cards • Paired Thinking • Inside-Outside Circle
ROLE CARDS • Etymology Expert – This student looks for facts about where the term came from, such as its language of origin and how it came to have its current meaning. • Root Researcher – This student identifies roots and affixes of a word and finds examples of other words with similar roots. • Synonym/Antonym Explorer – This student finds synonyms and antonyms for a word. • Discussion Leader – This student makes sure that everyone has a turn to talk and summarizes the group’s discussion for the class.
PAIRED THINKING • Students share their thinking about a term while in pairs. • Think-Pair-Share – students think about what new information they have learned about a term, pair up with a partner, and share their thoughts. • Notebook Trade – partners trade notebooks and look for one piece of unfamiliar information and/or one error/misconception ***Useful in surfacing misconceptions/confusion about a word
INSIDE-OUTSIDE CIRCLE Strategy that allows students to have brief conversations with many different peers in a short amount of time. • Divide class into two equal groups. One group stands in a circle facing outward, and the other forms an inward-facing circle around them. Each student should be facing one other student. • The teacher asks them to have a quick conversation with their partner about a word or to discuss a specific question, such as, “What is your favorite vocabulary term from this unit and why? ” • After students give a brief answer, the teacher gives a signal and students in the outside circle take one step to the left. With their new partner, students answer the same question from before or a different question provided by the teacher.
6. INVOLVE STUDENTS PERIODICALLY IN GAMES THAT ALLOW THEM TO PLAY WITH TERMS. • Games are a brain-compatible strategy for reinforcing learning. Actively processing vocabulary words in multiple ways allows the brain to store information in multiple memory systems, thus making access to that information easier with multiple triggers or cues (Sprenger, 2010). • Resource packet containing multiple games/game-like strategies: Pictionary (Draw Me) Alphabet Antonyms Classroom Feud Create a Category Name That Category (Scattergories) Sentence Stems Talk a Mile a Minute (Taboo/Catch Phrase)
ASSESSING VOCABULARY Avoid matching word to definition. Instead… Use open-ended questions that allow you to determine whether students truly understand the meanings of words. *** These types of questions more closely mimic the way vocabulary is tested on TNReady. Examples: What is the meaning of dismal as used in the narrative? Why does the narrative describe spottings of Bigfoot as “alleged”?
ASSESSING VOCABULARY Avoid matching word to definition. Instead… Incorporate questions like the following where students have to determine whether words are used correctly/incorrectly in context. Have them make corrections when words are used incorrectly. Example: C/I 1. I invested the money I inherited in what appeared to be a lucrative deal; alas, it was not. C/I 2. The steady rain could not dampen the exuberant of the fans gathered for the concert. Could change spelling, form of word, use word in wrong context for meaning, etc.
MODEL WHAT YOU WANT TO SEE FROM YOUR STUDENTS Use the Tier 2 and 3 vocabulary words in your verbal instruction in your conversations with students in your writing when you model for them/create test questions for them Encourage students to use the terms in their classroom discourse in their writing in their conversations with each other ***The old adage about losing something you don’t use is TRUE!
Vocabulary has long been ignored or thought a burden in our classrooms. It is time to give it the time it deserves. Teaching vocabulary in fun and interesting ways will make learning new words something to which you and your students can look forward.