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WHAT IS IT? Subtractive sculpture is the oldest form of sculpture and involves removing material, as in wood carving or stone sculpture, to create a finished work. Subtractive sculpture is by far the most technically difficult and due to the nature of the medium is the most restrictive in expression
GREEK MARBLE SCULPTURE The Classical period of Ancient Greece produced some of the most beautiful pieces of sculpture. The form "emerges" with careful chipping away into the marble's surface. The sculptor's magic wand or his "chipping" tools are the hammer, the chisel, and lots of patience. But just chipping away at the marble leaves a rough surface, it could be smoothed with an stone called an emery. (same idea as an emery board for shaping fingernails!) After the surface was smoothed it was polished with a softer stone to give it a shine known as a patina.
SCULPTING MASTER MICHELANGELO During the Renaissance, the greatest stone sculptor ever known, Michelangelo, created his works first in clay. The clay would next be cast in plaster and a three dimensional pointing device would be used by a staff of assistants to transfer the dimensions to a block of marble Countless hours would then be spent drilling into the marble in thousands of spots to the proper depth required by the pointing device. *His latest sculptures, like David, were done directly into the marble, no
ABSTRACT SCULPTURE This is sculpture as a purely aesthetic piece of art. Abstract sculpture is focused on strong design in THREE DIMENSIONS. Eyemovement, focal point, positive/negative space, & fluidity are all factors. Harmony and unity are also important… are you doing repeated elements? Do you have too many differing elements that make the sculpture look too chaotic or disjointed?
EXAMPLES OF ABSTRACT PLASTER PROJECTS Mother and Child: Egg Form by Henry Moore Remember that most abstract art is abstracted from real subject matter.
IMPORTANT ABSTRACT SCULPTURE ARTSTS Alexander Calder Henry Moore Constantin Brâncusi Louisianan Lynda Benglis
WHAT IS A MAQUETTE!? Maquette is French for “scale model”… this is how you “thumbnail” a three-dimensional piece of art. A maquette is a small version of the sculpture that you plan to make. You will use it to figure out your design on all sides and to have a physical model to look at while working on your project.
PLASTER STAGES � The liquid stage: This stage occurs immediately after mixing with water. The mixture can be poured or brushed on. It lasts about 15 minutes. � The putty stage: The plaster thickens to the consistency of toothpaste. Plaster can be applied with a putty knife or spatula, and it can be modeled like clay. It lasts about 5 minutes. � The rigid stage: Occurs once the mixture begins to set. The plaster becomes brittle and it can be cut with a knife or dug into with a spoon. The plaster is very fragile at this stage. � The set stage: The plaster begins to heat up and obviously hardens. When the plaster cools, it is a good time to remove it from the mold and trim any unwanted edges. � The cure stage: Lasts from the time it cools until it dries completely. The mixture hardens substantially and metal tools are required for its manipulation. Tools get clogged and require cleaning quite often. � The dry stage: The plaster no longer contains moisture and it is at maximum strength. It can be sanded with
YOUR PROJECT 1. You will make a small maquette of your project out of clay. Remember, plaster isn’t clay so we don’t have to worry about how “thick” the material is in the design. It IS NOT going in a kiln! 2. Mix plaster in small containers, let it harden, free it from the container. You may repeat more than once to make 1 -2 additional pieces for the project. 3. Mark out your design onto the plaster on ALL SIDES before you start cutting. 4. Carve away at the design bit by bit. Be careful and think before you cut! 5. Sand the sculpture smooth (time for those masks to be worn!)