Absolute Monarchy • Absolute= – All powerful • Monarchy= – King or queen • Absolute Monarchy • King/queen with complete control in their county
Divine Right • God created the monarchy. • Monarchs were God’s representatives on Earth
Structure • Monarch: – Rule as the executive without check of legislature or judiciary • Citizen: – listen and respect the monarch
Absolute Monarchies Advantages Disadvantages • Clear decision maker • Stability with clear leader • Lack of citizen participation, lack of choice and rights. • Infrequent changes in leaders
What led to absolute monarchs? • Decline of feudalism: Crusades and wars killed many feudal lords • Rising middle class supported the monarch- why? To protect their trade and property • Reformation gave monarchs powers formerly held by the Catholic Church. • Spirit of nationalism made monarchs a symbol of unity. • Constant warfare. Had to keep large standing armies. Had to raise taxes.
ABSOLUTISM IN SPAIN In the 1500 s Spain was the most powerful nation in Europe.
Phillip II Country: Spain Years: 1556 - 1598 Achievements: Hard-working ruler who ushered in the Golden age of Spain – the most powerful nation. He also helped strengthen the power of the Catholic Church Downfalls: Spanish armada defeated by England.
ABSOLUTISM IN FRANCE By the late 1600 s, France had replaced Spain as the most powerful European nation.
Louis XIV Country: France Years: 1643 – 1715 (72 years!) Achievements: Strengthened the monarchy, built palace of Versailles, strongest army in Europe, made France a wealthy cultural center. Downfalls: He used the wealth for his own benefit, peasants starved, numerous wars, never called legislature to session.
Louis XIV’s Chapel
Louis XIV’s Opera Stage
The King’s Bed The Queen’s Bed
ABSOLUTISM IN RUSSIA The driving force behind Russia’s rise to power was Ivan III (Ivan the Great). He built the framework for absolute rule in Russia, which would only get worse.
Ivan the Terrible Country: Russia Years: 1533 - 1584 Achievements: Introduced extreme absolute power, expanded Russian lands, made Russia more religious. Downfalls: Set up the first Russian secret police, who murdered thousands for him. He killed many nobles and destroyed many towns, and even killed his own son in a fit of rage.
ABSOLUTISM IN AUSTRIA
Maria Theresa Country: Austria Years: 1740 - 1780 Achievements: Reclaimed Austrian lands, strengthened and unified Austrian monarchy, first woman to rule Hapsburg lands Downfalls: War of Austrian succession led to the loss of territory, spent much time defending her right to rule.
ABSOLUTISM IN PRUSSIA
Frederick the Great Country: Prussia Years: 1740 - 1786 Achievements: Seized Austrian lands, disciplined, strong army, modernized country, transformed country into economically strong and reformed state Downfalls: frequent wars leading to many deaths
Summary Through the 1500 s and 1600 s absolutism became dominant through much of Europe and parts of Asia. In Spain, France, and Russia, absolutist monarchs claimed that they ruled by divine right and sought to extend their political power.