About How to Use Praat for Acoustic Analysis

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About How to Use Praat for Acoustic Analysis Created by Amanda Shultz Section 1

About How to Use Praat for Acoustic Analysis Created by Amanda Shultz Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Links

Main Target Audience Objectives Orientation Help About this program Mai n Prev Next

Main Target Audience Objectives Orientation Help About this program Mai n Prev Next

Target Audience • This individualized instruction in Power. Point was created for graduate students

Target Audience • This individualized instruction in Power. Point was created for graduate students and instructors with a background in phonology and phonetics who want to learn more about acoustic analysis. Mai n Sec Prev Next

Objectives • After using this instructional tool, you will: • Have a better understanding

Objectives • After using this instructional tool, you will: • Have a better understanding of what acoustics is and how it relates to phonology and phonetics • Know how to use the basic functions of Praat • Know how to measure voice onset time (VOT) Mai n Sec Prev Next

Orientation • This instructional tool may best be used with two computer monitors, one

Orientation • This instructional tool may best be used with two computer monitors, one to view Power. Point and the other to download the necessary items and use Praat. • Note that there are links to websites. Once you click on a website link, a window will appear with the website. You will need to click on the Power. Point screen again to return to this instructional tool. • There are three sections to this instructional tool: • Section 1: Background Information • Section 2: Using Praat • Section 3: Measuring Voice Onset Time (VOT) • You can access the three sections from the main menu. • To access the main menu from any page, click the “Main” button in the lower left corner. • Each section has its own page. • To access the section page of the section you are currently viewing, click the “Sec” button in the lower left corner. • Each page has navigation buttons. • Click the “Prev” button to view the previous page. • Click the “Next” button to view the next page in the progression of this instructional tool. • Click the “Back” button to view the last page you saw. Mai n Sec Prev Next

HELP Mai n Sec Need Help? • If you are experiencing problems with this

HELP Mai n Sec Need Help? • If you are experiencing problems with this instructional tool, feel free to email Amanda at shultz [email protected] edu. • If you feel like you need more background information, check out the links page here. • You can also access a helpful Praat beginners’ guide here. • For technical Praat questions, you can search the Praat manual by clicking the “Help” button, which is located in the object window as shown in the screen shot below. Prev Next

Main What you should know Praat VOT Helpful Links Section 1: Background Information Mai

Main What you should know Praat VOT Helpful Links Section 1: Background Information Mai n Prev Next

What you should know • Since this instructional tool is geared to those who

What you should know • Since this instructional tool is geared to those who already have an understanding of phonetics and phonology, you should be familiar with: • The International Phonetic Alphabet • The difference between phonetics and phonology Mai n Sec Prev Next

Praat • To put it simply, acoustics is the study of waves. To people

Praat • To put it simply, acoustics is the study of waves. To people interested in speech, acoustics is the study of the sound waves created by human speech. • For the purposes of this instructional tool, Praat is an acoustic analysis computer program, which is free off the internet. You can use Praat to take acoustic measurements (e. g. , pitch of a sound wave) from audio files of speech and to make markings within a text file to label and keep track of the contents of the audio file. • Praat was designed by Paul Boersma and David Weenick. • You can access their website for Praat here. Mai n Sec Prev Next

Voice Onset Time Definitions needed to understand voice onset time (VOT): • Phonation (Voicing)—vibration

Voice Onset Time Definitions needed to understand voice onset time (VOT): • Phonation (Voicing)—vibration of the vocal folds which produces a periodic waveform • Sound—a vibration that produces a periodic wave form (phonation/voicing creates a sound) • Noise—a vibration that lacks periodicity (aspiration creates noise) • Burst—a pressure impulse that can be seen in the waveform after the release of a stop/plosive Putting it all together: • VOT—the time that elapses between the burst of a plosive and the onset of phonation. We will focus on the VOT of the plosives /b/ and /p/. Mai n Sec Prev Next

Voice Onset Time • Voiced Stops: • If the onset of phonation occurs first

Voice Onset Time • Voiced Stops: • If the onset of phonation occurs first and the burst occurs second, then the VOT will have a negative value or if the phonation occurs at the burst then VOT would be 0 milliseconds (ms). During the time between the onset of phonation and the burst, there should be some periodicity (sound). • Voiced Stops: VOT ≤ 0 • E. g. , Spanish /b/ • Voiceless Stops: • If the burst occurs first and the onset of phonation occurs second, then the VOT will have a positive value. During the time between the burst and the onset of phonation, there may be some noise from aspiration, but there should not be any periodicity (sound). • Short Lag/Unaspirated Stops: 0 ms < VOT < 30 ms • E. g. , Spanish /p/ Mai n • Long Lag/Aspirated Stops: VOT > 30 ms Sec • E. g. , English /p/ Prev Next

Voice Onset Time • This diagram represents a timeline in which the mouth closes

Voice Onset Time • This diagram represents a timeline in which the mouth closes (“blockage”) and releases. • The zigzag represents the timing of the voicing. Mai n Sec Prev Next

Main Instructions Video 1 Video 2 Assessment Section 2: Using Praat Mai n Prev

Main Instructions Video 1 Video 2 Assessment Section 2: Using Praat Mai n Prev Next

Instructions: Getting Started with Praat 1) Go to Praat’s website and download the program

Instructions: Getting Started with Praat 1) Go to Praat’s website and download the program on your computer. 2) Go to this website and download the sound file labeled “Plosive 1”. 3) Save “Plosive 1” to your computer in a location that you will remember. 4) Open Praat. The download should have created a shortcut on your desktop. 5) Close the “Praat Picture” window; we will not be using this. 6) In the “Praat Objects” window, click “Read. ” Then click “Read from file. ” 7) Find “Plosive 1” in the place where you just saved it. Click on “Plosive 1” in the window and then click “Open. ” Mai Sec Prev Next n

Instructions: Getting Started with Praat 8) “ 1. Sound Plosive 1” will appear in

Instructions: Getting Started with Praat 8) “ 1. Sound Plosive 1” will appear in the Objects list as the first item. 9) Click the “Annotate” button located to the right of the Objects list. Then click “To Text. Grid…” 10) A window entitled, “Sound: To Text. Grid” will appear. Just click “OK”. (We will save naming tiers for another time. ) 11) “ 2. Text. Grid Plosive 1” will appear in the Objects list as the second item. 12) Highlight both the sound file and the Text. Grid within the objects window. (Do this by holding shift while clicking or click and then drag your mouse. ) 13) Click the “Edit” button located to the right of the Objects list. 14) Now you will see a new window appear. This shows the waveform and spectrogram of the sound file as well as the Text. Grid which, right now, includes three tiers, labeled 1, 2, and 3 along the left side of this window. See theyou “Beginning Praat Video” on the anext page for Congratulations, have now officially opened sound file/Text. Grid in a demonstration of these instructions. Praat! Mai n Sec Prev Next

Video 1 “Beginning Praat Video” Mai n Sec • Click the “VIDEO” button above

Video 1 “Beginning Praat Video” Mai n Sec • Click the “VIDEO” button above to see a demonstration of the previous set of instructions for using Praat. Prev Next

Video 2 “Praat Functions Video” Mai n Sec • Click the “VIDEO” button above

Video 2 “Praat Functions Video” Mai n Sec • Click the “VIDEO” button above to see a demonstration of some of the basic functions in Praat. Prev Next

Click to begin the activity! Assessment: Using Praat Mai n Sec Prev

Click to begin the activity! Assessment: Using Praat Mai n Sec Prev

Main Instructions Diagram Video Assessment Section 3: Measuring Voice Onset Time Mai n Prev

Main Instructions Diagram Video Assessment Section 3: Measuring Voice Onset Time Mai n Prev Next

Instructions: Measuring Voice Onset Time 1) Find the word that contains the initial stop

Instructions: Measuring Voice Onset Time 1) Find the word that contains the initial stop consonant that you want to measure. 2) Zoom in on the beginning of the word to find the burst of the stop. • Remember that the burst will make an impulse in the wave at the beginning of the word. 3) Place a boundary where the pulse begins to move from the dotted blue (zero) line. 4) Zoom out to see where the periodicity of voicing begins. 5) Zoom back in to see exactly where the periodicity does begin. Mai n Sec Prev Next

Instructions 6) If you are not sure, you can listen to a selection of

Instructions 6) If you are not sure, you can listen to a selection of the speech that you think should be between the burst and the onset of voicing. Listening with a good pair of headphones is a good way to double check your work. • • If VOT is positive, then the onset of voicing should be noise, while the following vowel should be a periodic sound. If VOT is negative, then you have a waveform before the burst. 7) Place a boundary at the onset of voicing. 8) Click on the space between the two boundary lines and record the duration. This is the VOT. Remember: • • Mai n Sec If the burst comes before the onset of voicing, then VOT is positive. If the burst comes after the onset of voicing, then VOT is negative. • This means that you would have to put a negative sign in front of the duration that Praat calculated between the onset of voicing and the burst. (There is no reason for Praat to record a negative duration. ) Prev Next

Diagram Praat Screen Shot • The above screen shot of Praat has arrows that

Diagram Praat Screen Shot • The above screen shot of Praat has arrows that point to important features. Mai n Sec Prev Next

Video “VOT Video” • Click the “VIDEO” button above to see a demonstration of

Video “VOT Video” • Click the “VIDEO” button above to see a demonstration of how to measure VOT in Praat. Mai n Sec Prev Next

Click to begin the quiz! Assessment: Measuring VOT Mai n Sec Prev

Click to begin the quiz! Assessment: Measuring VOT Mai n Sec Prev

Praat Website Sample Sounds Beginning Praat Video Praat Functions Video Praat VOT Video Beginners’

Praat Website Sample Sounds Beginning Praat Video Praat Functions Video Praat VOT Video Beginners’ Guide to Praat Wikipedia: Acoustics Wikipedia: VOT How to read a spectrogram Mystery Spectrogram Helpful Links Mai n Bac k

 • If I wanted to upload a sound file into Praat, what would

• If I wanted to upload a sound file into Praat, what would I click first? Activity Section 2: Using Praat Click on the picture in response to the question.

Correct ! Next Question

Correct ! Next Question

 • If I wanted to view just the part highlighted in pink, what

• If I wanted to view just the part highlighted in pink, what would I click? Activity Section 2: Using Praat Click on the picture in response to the question.

Correct ! Next Question

Correct ! Next Question

 • If I wanted to view the Praat manual, what would I click?

• If I wanted to view the Praat manual, what would I click? Activity Section 2: Using Praat Click on the picture in response to the question.

Correct ! Next Question

Correct ! Next Question

 • Click on the part of the screen that shows the duration of

• Click on the part of the screen that shows the duration of the part of the sound that is highlighted. Activity Section 2: Using Praat Click on the picture in response to the question.

Correct ! You have finished Mai n Sec Next

Correct ! You have finished Mai n Sec Next

1. Approximately, what is the VOT for the word “Bat” in the “Plosive 1”

1. Approximately, what is the VOT for the word “Bat” in the “Plosive 1” sound file? Quiz Section 3: Measuring VOT a. b. c. d. 1 ms 4 ms 12 ms 51 ms

Correct ! Next Question

Correct ! Next Question

2. Approximately, what is the VOT for the word “Pat” in the “Plosive 1”

2. Approximately, what is the VOT for the word “Pat” in the “Plosive 1” sound file? Quiz Section 3: Measuring VOT a. b. c. d. 88 ms 62 ms 54 ms 10 ms

Correct ! Next Question

Correct ! Next Question

3. Approximately, what is the VOT for the word “Bit” in the “Plosive 1”

3. Approximately, what is the VOT for the word “Bit” in the “Plosive 1” sound file? Quiz Section 3: Measuring VOT a. b. c. d. 85 ms 72 ms 35 ms 13 ms

Correct ! Next Question

Correct ! Next Question

4. Approximately, what is the VOT for the word “Pit” in the “Plosive 1”

4. Approximately, what is the VOT for the word “Pit” in the “Plosive 1” sound file? Quiz Section 3: Measuring VOT a. b. c. d. 89 ms 95 ms 109 ms 125 ms

Congrats! You have reached the end of this instructional tool. Click to see helpful

Congrats! You have reached the end of this instructional tool. Click to see helpful links

Try again Back to Question

Try again Back to Question