Abdominal Palpation for Fetal Position Purpose 1 Determine

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Abdominal Palpation for Fetal Position

Abdominal Palpation for Fetal Position

Purpose 1. Determine the position of the baby in utero 2. Determine the expected

Purpose 1. Determine the position of the baby in utero 2. Determine the expected presentation during labor and delivery

Questions to ask yourself when performing the abdominal palpation examination: 1. Is the fundal

Questions to ask yourself when performing the abdominal palpation examination: 1. Is the fundal height consistent with the fetal maturity? 2. Is the, transvelie longitudinalrse or oblique? 3. Is the presentation cephalic or breech? 4. If cephalic, is the attitude vertex or facial? 5. What is the position of the denominator? 6. Is the vertex engaged?

The fetal lie is either: § Longitudinal o long axis of the fetus is

The fetal lie is either: § Longitudinal o long axis of the fetus is alligned to the mother’s o this is the only NORMAL position § Transverse o long axis of the fetus is perpendicular to that of the mother’s § Oblique o long axis of the fetus is 0 -90 degrees (or 90 -180 degrees) to that of the mother’s

Fetal Lie

Fetal Lie

The presentation is either: § Vertex o head down in the pelvis § Brow

The presentation is either: § Vertex o head down in the pelvis § Brow § Facial § Breech o head is up in the uterine fundus and the buttocks is down in the pelvis § Shoulder

Attitude § The attitude is the relationship of the fetal parts to each other:

Attitude § The attitude is the relationship of the fetal parts to each other: o Flexed o Deflexed o Extended

Denominator • The denominator (center identifying letter) is the fetal part presenting itself Occiput

Denominator • The denominator (center identifying letter) is the fetal part presenting itself Occiput Sacrum Mentum Frontal Acromion -O -S -M -F - AC or Scapula SC

PRESENTATION ATTITUDE Vertex Brow Facial Flexed Deflexed (vertex) Extended (vertex) DENOMINATOR Occiput Frontal Mentum

PRESENTATION ATTITUDE Vertex Brow Facial Flexed Deflexed (vertex) Extended (vertex) DENOMINATOR Occiput Frontal Mentum Breech Sacrum Shoulder Acromion/ Scapula

Flexed Vertex Presentation 8 Possibilities § § LOL ROL LOA ROA §ROP §LOP §OA

Flexed Vertex Presentation 8 Possibilities § § LOL ROL LOA ROA §ROP §LOP §OA

 • Full/Complete Breech o arms & legs flexed in the o fetal position

• Full/Complete Breech o arms & legs flexed in the o fetal position • Incomplete Breech • Frank Breech o arms flexed but legs extended straight up over head • Footling Breech o one or both feet extended downward and may exit the birth canal first

Engagement § Determined by the amount of head that is above or below the

Engagement § Determined by the amount of head that is above or below the pelvic brim o This is usually done by dividing the head into ”fifths” o if the head is still palpable abdominally, it is “ 2/5” or less engaged

Leopold’s Maneuver

Leopold’s Maneuver

PURPOSES § To provide information about fetal presentation, position, presenting part i. e. lie,

PURPOSES § To provide information about fetal presentation, position, presenting part i. e. lie, attitude, and descent § To aid in location of fetal heart rates § To aid in assessment of fetal size § To determination of single versus multiple gestation

Leopold’s Maneuver § Four-part process § Palpation of fetal position in-utero

Leopold’s Maneuver § Four-part process § Palpation of fetal position in-utero

Preparation § Woman is supine, head slightly elevated and knees slightly flexed § Place

Preparation § Woman is supine, head slightly elevated and knees slightly flexed § Place a small rolled towel under her right hip If the nurse is R handed, stand at the woman’s R side facing her for the first 3 steps, then turn and face her feet for the last step (L handed, left side).

First Maneuver § Facing the mother, palpate the fundus with both hands – Assess

First Maneuver § Facing the mother, palpate the fundus with both hands – Assess for shape, size, consistency and mobility § Fetal head: firm, hard, and round – Moves independently of the rest – Detectable by ballotement § Breech/buttocks: softer and has bony prominences – Moves with the rest of the form

Second Maneuver Determine position of the back. § Still facing the mother, place both

Second Maneuver Determine position of the back. § Still facing the mother, place both palms on the abdomen o Hold R hand still and with deep but gentle pressure, use L hand to feel for the firm, smooth back o Repeat using opposite hands § Confirm your findings by palpating the fetal extremities on the opposite side o small protrusions, “lumpy”

Third Maneuver Determine what part is lying above the inlet. § Gently grasp the

Third Maneuver Determine what part is lying above the inlet. § Gently grasp the lower portion of the abdomen (just above symphisis pubis) with the thumb and fingers of the R hand § Confirm presenting part (opposite of what’s in the fundus)

§ Head will feel firm § Buttocks will feel softer and irregular § If

§ Head will feel firm § Buttocks will feel softer and irregular § If it’s not engaged, it may be gently pushed back and forth § Proceed to the 4 th step if it’s not engaged…

Fourth Maneuver 1. Locate brow. 2. Assess descent of the presenting part. § Turn

Fourth Maneuver 1. Locate brow. 2. Assess descent of the presenting part. § Turn to face the woman’s feet § Move fingers of both hands gently down the sides of the abdomen towards the pubis - Palpate for the cephalic prominence (vertex)

Fourth Maneuver (cont’d) § Prominence on the same side as the small parts suggests

Fourth Maneuver (cont’d) § Prominence on the same side as the small parts suggests that the head is flexed (optimum) § Prominence on the same side as the back suggests that the head is extended