Abbreviations M years thousand years 100 M years

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Abbreviations • M years = thousand years 100 M years = 100, 000 years

Abbreviations • M years = thousand years 100 M years = 100, 000 years • MM years = million years 5 MM years = 5 million years • B. P. (BP) = before present (years ago) 200, 000 BP = 200, 000 years ago 1

Archicebus achilles • 55 MM years ago. – Earliest known primate • Discovered in

Archicebus achilles • 55 MM years ago. – Earliest known primate • Discovered in China 2002 • Announced in 2013. • Size of a mouse, 20 -30 g • Distinctive monkey like ankle bone. Opposable thumbs, finger nails and flat face. 2

Sahelanthropus Tchadensis • Discovered at Toros. Menalla in N. Chad in 2001. • Dated

Sahelanthropus Tchadensis • Discovered at Toros. Menalla in N. Chad in 2001. • Dated approximately 7 MM years old. • Forward position of foramen magnum suggest bipedal. • Body fragments needed for confirmation. 3

Human Classification Genesis of modern human 4

Human Classification Genesis of modern human 4

Orrorin Tugenensis • These bone fragments from several individuals are 5. 8 -6 MM

Orrorin Tugenensis • These bone fragments from several individuals are 5. 8 -6 MM BP. • The femur, more human like suggest it had bipedal abilities. 5

http: //www. talkorigins. org/faqs/homs/species. html 6

http: //www. talkorigins. org/faqs/homs/species. html 6

Archeological Sites 7

Archeological Sites 7

Ardipithecus ramidus “Ardi” 4. 4 MM BP Earliest hominid with extensive evidence of bipedalism

Ardipithecus ramidus “Ardi” 4. 4 MM BP Earliest hominid with extensive evidence of bipedalism Announced in 2009 Chimpanzee sized agile tree dweller bidpedal on ground 8

4. 2 -1. 5 MM B. P. • Australopithecines in Africa – 25% larger

4. 2 -1. 5 MM B. P. • Australopithecines in Africa – 25% larger brain size than Chimpanzee – Hands are free to make tools – Hunters and gatherers 9

Lucy • Australopithicus Afarensis • About 40% of her remains were found. • Enough

Lucy • Australopithicus Afarensis • About 40% of her remains were found. • Enough for an artist to render this image. 10

Australopithecus Sediba • Discovered in 2008 and recognized as new “human like” species. •

Australopithecus Sediba • Discovered in 2008 and recognized as new “human like” species. • Dated 1. 95 -1. 78 million years old. • Possible oldest predecessor to us. 11

2. 5 -1. 5 MM B. P. • Homo Habilus – Arguably earliest human

2. 5 -1. 5 MM B. P. • Homo Habilus – Arguably earliest human ancestor. – Possibly capable of speech – Upright tool maker – Brain size 500 -800 m. L or 30 -40% larger than A. Africanus 12

1. 8 MM-0. 3 MM B. P. • Homo Erectus (Europe) & Homo Ergaster

1. 8 MM-0. 3 MM B. P. • Homo Erectus (Europe) & Homo Ergaster (Africa) – Increased motor skills, imagination and reasoning – Fire usage 0. 8 MM yr. ago. – Sophisticated hunting practices – First use of hand ax – Males 5’ 11” 150 Lbs, females 25% smaller. 13

Whether we evolved from one Homo species. • Most complete 1. 8 MM BP

Whether we evolved from one Homo species. • Most complete 1. 8 MM BP remains of five individuals in one Dmanisi Georgia cave. • Discovery suggests Homo Habilis, Rudolfensis & Erectus may be one species. • Video 14

Archaic Homo Sapiens • Large brain Hominids which emerged about 500 M years ago.

Archaic Homo Sapiens • Large brain Hominids which emerged about 500 M years ago. • Heidelbergensis is earliest species believed to bury their dead. Homo Heidelbergensis 15

230, 000 -40, 000 B. P. • Neanderthals & Denisovan may have evolved from

230, 000 -40, 000 B. P. • Neanderthals & Denisovan may have evolved from H. Erectus • Modern Melanesians & Aboriginal Australians 3 -5% Denisovan genes. • The rest of us are 1 -4% Neanderthalis • Spiritual intelligent animals 16

Neanderthals were different • They had thicker and larger craniums and brow ridge than

Neanderthals were different • They had thicker and larger craniums and brow ridge than us with different cranium shape. • They did not have a dominant chin like us. 17

Neanderthals • Genome mapping of Neanderthals began 2005 at Max-Planck Institute in Frankfurt Germany.

Neanderthals • Genome mapping of Neanderthals began 2005 at Max-Planck Institute in Frankfurt Germany. • Genome evidence of interbreeding in non-African humans. • 1 -4% inherited Neanderthal genes in most humans. • Neanderthals – A lot more on Neanderthals • These genes may have strengthened our immune system 18

Homo Sapiens 315, 000 BP • Our species. • Fossil found in Morocco dating

Homo Sapiens 315, 000 BP • Our species. • Fossil found in Morocco dating back 315 M BP years. Outside Africa 200 M BP. • Mass migration to Europe 45 M BP followed by Neanderthal extinction 40 M BP Evolution of bidpedal hominins 19

Summary of Hominids 20

Summary of Hominids 20

11, 500 B. P. • Earliest evidence of civilization at Gobekli Tepe in Turkey.

11, 500 B. P. • Earliest evidence of civilization at Gobekli Tepe in Turkey. • Neolithic sanctuary – No local residents • Shared spirituality, moral code & trust • Triggers: ritual, feasting, resources Gobekli Tepe 21

Dating Methods • Absolute dating methods – Relies on biological, radiometric or geological/electromagnetic methods.

Dating Methods • Absolute dating methods – Relies on biological, radiometric or geological/electromagnetic methods. • Relative dating methods – Relies on dating through reference to other dated sites, stratigraphy and “index fossils. ” 22

Carbon-14 Dating • hvneutron + 14 N 14 C + 1 H upper atmosphere

Carbon-14 Dating • hvneutron + 14 N 14 C + 1 H upper atmosphere • Carbon life forms are mostly 12 C isotope. • All living organisms possess a constant ratio of 14 C/12 C until the organism dies then [14 C] becomes less. • 14 C 14 N + e “transmutation” • 50% of 14 C sample transmutates in 5730 years. • Not practical for dating >60 M years 23

Potassium-Argon Dating • 40 K + e 40 Ar • Called electron capture transmutation.

Potassium-Argon Dating • 40 K + e 40 Ar • Called electron capture transmutation. • Proton changes into a neutron. § 50% transmutates in 1, 280 MM years. § Practical for dating igneous rocks >100 M years old. 24

Science • Explanation of natural phenomena through controlled, reproducible experimental fact. • Hypothesis Experimentation

Science • Explanation of natural phenomena through controlled, reproducible experimental fact. • Hypothesis Experimentation Theory Natural Law • Approved by panel of peers and published in a public journal. 25

The Scientific Method A Theory attempts to explain why it happens A Law summarizes

The Scientific Method A Theory attempts to explain why it happens A Law summarizes what happens 26

Technology • Applied scientific principles or natural resources to improve human life. • Computers,

Technology • Applied scientific principles or natural resources to improve human life. • Computers, telecommunications, TV, atomic energy, etc. 27

Brian Arthur – Why Things Become Complex • Subsystems are added – To overcome

Brian Arthur – Why Things Become Complex • Subsystems are added – To overcome limitations, handle exceptional circumstances or adapt to more complex world. – True for machines, bureaucracies, living organisms and life itself. 28

Brian Arthur cont. • Subsystems beget more subsytems – These added subsystems need additional

Brian Arthur cont. • Subsystems beget more subsytems – These added subsystems need additional subsystems to monitor and control them. – Once over encumbered with subsystems further innovation leads to renewed simplicity 29

Science, Math & Reading • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) – Presently

Science, Math & Reading • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) – Presently 36 countries – The USA teens ranks below average in all categories according to 2012 assessment by PISA according to Nat’l Center for Education Statistics. – Link to PISA results 30

James Burke’s Major Technologies • Nuclear power • Telecommunications • The Computer • The

James Burke’s Major Technologies • Nuclear power • Telecommunications • The Computer • The Assembly line • Air Transportation • Plastics • Liquid Fuel Rockets • Television 31

Securing the US Electrical Grid • Our electrical power grid is vulnerable to the

Securing the US Electrical Grid • Our electrical power grid is vulnerable to the following threats: • Cyber attacks • Physical attacks • Radiation bursts – GIC, EMP or DEW • Severe weather Link to pdf 32

Scientific Laws • Conservation of mass - “matter can neither be created nor destroyed,

Scientific Laws • Conservation of mass - “matter can neither be created nor destroyed, ” in chemical reactions. • Conservation of energy - “energy can neither be created nor destroyed, ” in chemical reactions. 33

Can You Answer These? § Which hominid first had the • ability to make

Can You Answer These? § Which hominid first had the • ability to make fire. How many years ago? • Was there time overlaps in bipedal hominids? H. Erectus about 1 MM year ago. Slide #13 § What is our relationship with Archaic Homo Sapiens? Interbreeding and shared genes for immunity. #17 § What is the difference between • science and technology? § What are threats to the US • electrical grid § • Yes, #20 Science is what is demonstrably true about the world around us. #23 -24 Cyber, physical, radiation pulse and severe weather #32 34

Can You Answer These? § According to Brian Arthur, what • are subsystems? §

Can You Answer These? § According to Brian Arthur, what • are subsystems? § What is radiochemical dating. Which of these dating methods • would be used to determine the age of old woven materials. § If 100 Lbs. of dynamite explodes • how much will the products of this explosion weigh? The conservation of mass says it must also be 100 Lbs. #33 & 36 § According PISA how do US teens rank in STEM Bottom half. #30 • Added to overcome limitations. #28 Aging artifacts via transmutation of unstable nuclear isotopes. Carbon 14. # 22 -23 35

Conservation of Mass • 2 C 8 H 18 + 25 O 2 Gasoline

Conservation of Mass • 2 C 8 H 18 + 25 O 2 Gasoline + Oxygen (from air) 16 CO 2 + 18 H 2 O Carbon dioxide + water • 5. 9 Lbs + 20. 5 Lbs 1 gallon 18. 1 Lbs + 8. 3 Lbs • 26. 4 Lbs (gas & O 2) 26. 4 Lbs CO 2 & water 36

Appendix • The following slide(s) have been removed from previous presentations due to more

Appendix • The following slide(s) have been removed from previous presentations due to more recent discovery. 37

Did We Evolve From Lemurs? • Nicknamed “Ida” a missing link in human evolution?

Did We Evolve From Lemurs? • Nicknamed “Ida” a missing link in human evolution? • She lived about 47 MM years ago. • Opposable thumbs and finger nails. • http: //www. revealingthel ink. com/who-is-ida/ 38