A survey of value chain studies in Asia

  • Slides: 36
Download presentation
A survey of value chain studies in Asia Dr. D. A. M. De Silva

A survey of value chain studies in Asia Dr. D. A. M. De Silva

“Supply chain” is not synonymous with “value chain”, because… �Value chains are concerned with

“Supply chain” is not synonymous with “value chain”, because… �Value chains are concerned with what the market will pay for a good offered for sale �The main objectives of value chain management are to maximize gross revenue and sustain it over time �Supply chains are concerned with what it costs and how long it takes to present the good for sale �The main objectives of supply chain management are to reduce the number of links and to reduce friction (bottlenecks, costs incurred, time to market), but �Need a good supply chain to build a value chain

Source: Michael Porter (1985)

Source: Michael Porter (1985)

VALUE CHAIN: Creating value chain for fish and fishery products Production (From: Farm or

VALUE CHAIN: Creating value chain for fish and fishery products Production (From: Farm or water bodies) Distribution (Transport and logistics) Marketing (To: Final consumer)

Production Year round production; multi regional and international Fresh, cut Service oriented customers Fisher

Production Year round production; multi regional and international Fresh, cut Service oriented customers Fisher or shipper controlled; cost driven Differentiated produce Branding and private labels Retailer controlled; revenue driven Streamlined Distribution, Acct-oriented marketing, Category Management

Food fish value chains in Asia 1 Importers fishermen Retailers 2 fishermen Processors Export

Food fish value chains in Asia 1 Importers fishermen Retailers 2 fishermen Processors Export Retail Chain 3 fishermen Export Processors Wholesaler Export Retailers Importers

4 Processor Wholesaler 5 Export Re-Export Wholesaler Processor Retailer

4 Processor Wholesaler 5 Export Re-Export Wholesaler Processor Retailer

Dry dish value chain - Bangladesh Fishers (100%) 60% Dealer Middlemen (25%) Middlemen (15%)

Dry dish value chain - Bangladesh Fishers (100%) 60% Dealer Middlemen (25%) Middlemen (15%) Dealer (80%) 10% 5% 5% Dry fish producers (20%)

Dry fish producers (20%) Low income (16%) Middle income (3. 5%) Feed Industry Wholesaler

Dry fish producers (20%) Low income (16%) Middle income (3. 5%) Feed Industry Wholesaler (16%) Middlemen (3%) City wholesaler (14. %) Retailer (3%) Retailer (14. 5%) Imports Consumers Source: (Shamsuddoha, 2007) Entrepreneurs (0. 5%) Supermarket (0. 4%) Export (0. 6%)

Value chain analysis – Hilsa marketing, Bangladesh �Hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha) – national fish �Most

Value chain analysis – Hilsa marketing, Bangladesh �Hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha) – national fish �Most important single species, economically and emotionally � 30% of national fisheries prodcution � 88% marketed internally for domestic consumption � 12% exported to ethnic markets �Fish marketing system are complex, traditional, and less competitive

Value chain analysis -Hilsa Primary market Purchase price (PP) 0. 88 Marketing costs (MC)

Value chain analysis -Hilsa Primary market Purchase price (PP) 0. 88 Marketing costs (MC) 0. 05 Sales price (SP) 1. 02 Market margin (MM=SP-PP) 0. 14 (8%) Marketing profit (MP=MM-MC)0. 09 Secondary market Purchase price (PP) 1. 02 Marketing costs (MC) 0. 07 Sales price (SP) 1. 39 Market margin (MM=SP-PP) 0. 37 (23%) Market profit (Mp=MM-MC) 0. 30 Retail market Purchase price (PP) 1. 39 Marketing costs (MC) 0. 04 Sales price (SP) 1. 61 Market margin (MM=SP-PP) 0. 22 (14%) Market profit (Mp=MM-MC) 0. 18

Market margin and Marketing Profit – Hilsa marketing 1. 8 1. 6 1. 4

Market margin and Marketing Profit – Hilsa marketing 1. 8 1. 6 1. 4 Price US$/Kg 1. 2 1 Primary market Secondary market 0. 8 Retail Market 0. 6 0. 4 0. 2 0 pp mc Source: (Ahmed, 2005) sp mm mp

Vietnam’s seafood industry: A socially embedded division of state owned and local Chinese owned

Vietnam’s seafood industry: A socially embedded division of state owned and local Chinese owned enterprises in regional value chains? � Seafood industry is the country's third largest exporter � Dominating position on the Japanese market and market of Mainland China has increased in importance � To illustrate how the structures of value chains are embedded in lead firms as well in the supplying firms in the value chain � State owned enterprises (SOEs) and the local Chinese dominated private seafood sector � Nature of the value chain as shaped by the institutional environments and the social actors, who give specific attributes to the different nodes of the chain in local, national, regional and global spaces � Shrimp Value chains are three types: 1. Local Chinese Owned Pvt. Companies: i. Marginalized in HACCP standard procedure ii. Minor group of enterprises succeed to upgrade to HACCP 2. State Owned Enterprises /SOE ***Overseas Chinese dominated shrimp value chains***

Shrimp value chain: SOE or Local Chinese owned pvt. Co. Aquaculture Traders Processors Retailers

Shrimp value chain: SOE or Local Chinese owned pvt. Co. Aquaculture Traders Processors Retailers Source: Lindhal, 2005

Local Chinese Owned Pvt. Companies vs SOEs �Forward linkages with farmers �Provide feed, capital,

Local Chinese Owned Pvt. Companies vs SOEs �Forward linkages with farmers �Provide feed, capital, antibiotics and other inputs to farmers �Price is higher (15%) �Use new technology; IT, market information, certification �New processing plants �Long term supplier contracts �Use ethnic networks to market products �Strong ties with diaspora

Shrimp value chains to Japanese market Farmers Processors Traders Retail chains in Japan or

Shrimp value chains to Japanese market Farmers Processors Traders Retail chains in Japan or Trading Houses Trading houses in Hong Kong & Singapore Processors in Japan Retailers Source: Lindhal, 2005

Overseas Chinese dominated shrimp value chains Ø 1. Local Chinese Owned Pvt. Companies Ø

Overseas Chinese dominated shrimp value chains Ø 1. Local Chinese Owned Pvt. Companies Ø Use regional relationships to enhance ; market power, coordinating skills, market penetration, brand establishment, & entering into high value markets Ø 2. Minor group of enterprises succeed to upgrade to HACCP Ø Use relationship in Diaspora communities to clear branding strategies, contact variety of regional and global retailers, developed market linkages through ICT Ø Products to ethnic markets: low level of value addition and traditional tastes, flavours, methods. . .

Similarities of fish marketing systems in developing vs developed countries �Both have to face

Similarities of fish marketing systems in developing vs developed countries �Both have to face the same basic challenge of providing safe food of right type and quality, to right place to right people those who are willing and able to pay �Market composed of mixture of local and imported fish and fishery products �Complex panorama of actors, enterprises and institutions �Important role of supermarkets in fish and fishery product retailing �Presence of hotel restaurant and institutional channels, and therefore some food service suppliers �Increasing role of regulations and standards

Differences of fish marketing systems in developing vs developed countries �Vastly different scale at

Differences of fish marketing systems in developing vs developed countries �Vastly different scale at system and enterprise level �Percentage of product handled formally lower in less developed countries �Share of fresh versus processed or manufactured much higher in less developed countries than emerging or developed countries �Supermarket share is rising still and fast in less developed countries to detriment of smaller retailers and wholesale markets

Challenges for developing country suppliers in general ØChoosing between commodity and specialty markets ØRetaining

Challenges for developing country suppliers in general ØChoosing between commodity and specialty markets ØRetaining and expanding market access ØGaining and holding a position in lucrative value/supply chains ØPenetrating, holding, expanding better markets ØRaising productivity and competitiveness ØIncreasing value added ØDealing effectively with emerging standards

PESTLE analysis �Is a useful tool for understanding the “big picture” of the environment

PESTLE analysis �Is a useful tool for understanding the “big picture” of the environment in which industry is operating and environmental understanding will bring the advantage of the opportunities and guide to minimize threats �PESTLE components are; � P-Political �E – Economic �S – Social �T – Technological �L - Legal �E - Environment

Factors Importance : Increasing >; Unchanged =; Decreasing < Political Factors • Low political

Factors Importance : Increasing >; Unchanged =; Decreasing < Political Factors • Low political interest among the general public and therefore little or no pressure on government • Low political pressure from fishermen and boat owners • Low interest among politicians • High interest among government to improve the situation on post harvest losses • Frequent changes in policy due to rapid changes in politically elected authorities within the government affecting stability of practical resolutions • Possibilities for fishermen- and vessel owner associations to influence future policy making and contributing to political decisions • International agreements e. g. IOTC = > >

Factors Economical Factors • Low average catches affect fishermen’s incomes and availability of capital

Factors Economical Factors • Low average catches affect fishermen’s incomes and availability of capital to invest in improvements • Low purchasing power among a large group of customers in the domestic market • Un equal income distribution and growing upper middle class • Limited knowledge in financial accounting affects operation of small and medium sized fishermen’s businesses • The ongoing civil conflicts in Asia affects governmental expenditures and decreases the possible funding of development in the fisheries sector • The tsunami disaster had severe effect on the Indonesian, Sri Lankan, and Thailand fisheries sectors e. g. on development and capacity Importance : Increasing >; Unchanged =; Decreasing < = > > <

Factors Sociological Factors • Acceptance of low quality fish • Lack of awareness •

Factors Sociological Factors • Acceptance of low quality fish • Lack of awareness • Food safety and health problems due to low fish quality • The attitude of fishermen • Lack of specialized education among fishermen • Religious sentiments affecting industrial practices Importance : Increasing >; Unchanged =; Decreasing < < < > > > =

Factors Technological Factors • Lack of infrastructure (e. g. facility, machinery, tools, practices) •

Factors Technological Factors • Lack of infrastructure (e. g. facility, machinery, tools, practices) • Inferior boat design • Inferior harbor design • Insufficient availability of freezing facilities • Inadequate processing facilities • Selectivity of fishing gear (i. e. gillnets) • Lack of technological improvements (e. g. freezers, insulating boxes etc. ) • Lack of proper hygienic practices • Inadequate transport facilities Importance : Increasing >; Unchanged =; Decreasing < < > > > > =

Factors Legal Factors • Lack of regulations, monitoring and enforcement on: Quality standards Food

Factors Legal Factors • Lack of regulations, monitoring and enforcement on: Quality standards Food safety Hygiene standards Fish handling Illegal inland fishing • Regulations in foreign export markets (e. g. EU, USA and Japan) • General trade agreements and tariff Importance : Increasing >; Unchanged =; Decreasing < > > > > =

Factors Environmental Factors • Insufficient availability of clean water • Tropical weather conditions and

Factors Environmental Factors • Insufficient availability of clean water • Tropical weather conditions and climate change • Pollution in harbor basin water • Lack of adequate sewage management • Oil spills in harbors • Hygienic conditions onboard boats and in harbors • Sustainability of fish stocks • Stock size (When stocks are large and catches good, post harvest losses tends to increase) Importance : Increasing >; Unchanged =; Decreasing < > > > > = > < =

Drivers and governors of change on the demand side… 1. Demographics: growth rate; age

Drivers and governors of change on the demand side… 1. Demographics: growth rate; age distribution; ethnicity; race; geographic distribution; extent of travel; exposure to food-related information and retailer promotion 2. Consumer preferences: price vs. quality/condition; convenience; year-round availability; variety; nutritional content; safety; greenness; fair trade; luxury goods 3. Buyer specifications: volumes; presentation; labeling; private standards; certification; price point; service 4. Technology: marketing information systems; category management methods; progress in supply chain management; transport and handling advances

5. Regulatory change: official standards and associated certification; labeling (nutrition, COOL, allergens); market access;

5. Regulatory change: official standards and associated certification; labeling (nutrition, COOL, allergens); market access; environmental protection; OSHA; labor rights; animal rights 6. Market access: tariffs; quarantine restrictions; other non-tariff trade barriers (NTBs) 7. Factor costs in distribution and retailing: energy; transport; labor 8. Economic growth trends: GDP; disposable income; levels and use of consumer credit; inequality of wealth

Drivers and governors of change on the supply side… 1. Product/market conditions: effective demand;

Drivers and governors of change on the supply side… 1. Product/market conditions: effective demand; prices; competition 2. Procurement practices: value chain integration; compliance with private standards; preferred supplier arrangements; new terms of sale 3. Factor prices and availability for production and shipping: land; capital; labor; energy; transport 4. Producer preferences: overall investment per crop area; price levels and their variability; production risk

5. Technology: marketing information systems; supply chain management; quality assurance regimes; transport and handling

5. Technology: marketing information systems; supply chain management; quality assurance regimes; transport and handling technologies; post-harvest and production technologies 6. Regulatory change: capacity to deal with market access requirements and standards; dealing with local and national restrictions on land use, inputs, labor contracting and treatment 7. Demographics: availability of seasonal labor; existence of a local market for seconds and an urban market for export-quality product

Conclusions and Implications �Different institutional contexts of end-markets are linked to different forms of

Conclusions and Implications �Different institutional contexts of end-markets are linked to different forms of coordination and control of value chains �Economically and socially important species and value chains are differ widely across Asia �Networks both local and regional enhance the value addition

1. Need to develop vision on: learning, investment, market access, sales, and exports 2.

1. Need to develop vision on: learning, investment, market access, sales, and exports 2. Make sure the policy environment as favorable as possible, but don’t assume that will be enough 3. Identify and support promising value chains with assistance at key point in the supply chain based on collaborative analysis of challenges, joint definition of priorities, and expert assistance from industryexperienced people 4. Take a cluster approach only as the starting point for value chains, not as an end in itself.

5. Concentrate on competitiveness and productivity 6. Look for and exploit multiple ways to

5. Concentrate on competitiveness and productivity 6. Look for and exploit multiple ways to add value once initial success has been attained with a single deal 7. Seek sustainability within value chains, not in the development programs or projects 8. Recognize that some keys to success require mainly public sector intervention, others only private, and some a mixture of the two 9. Seek private sector alliances at all stages of supply and value chains

Thanks!

Thanks!