- Slides: 51
A NEW NATION (1787 – 1865)
A NEW NATION NOTES Table of Contents Part 1 – The Federalist Era Part 2 – Thomas Jefferson Part 3 – War of 1812 Part 4 – Era of Good Feeling Part 5 – Age of Jackson Part 6 – Manifest Destiny Part 7 - A Changing U. S. Part 8 – Beginnings of the Civil War Part 9 – The Civil War Branches of Government – Brown Senate – Navy / Dark Blue House of Representatives – Maroon President – Dark Green 2
A NEW NATION NOTES 1. The Federalist Era George Washington, “Father of our Country”, 1 st President, inaugurated (sworn in) on April 30, 1789 in New York City, served two terms (8 years) in office. Washington created many precedents or traditions, such as: -Serve two terms as the President. -A Presidential Cabinet or group of advisors. The First Cabinet: Secretary of State-Thomas Jefferson, Foreign Affairs Secretary of Treasury-Alexander Hamilton, Money Secretary of War– Henry Knox, Military Attorney General – Edmund Randolph, Laws
A NEW NATION NOTES 1. The Federalist Era -A Federal Court system. The Judiciary Act of 1789 was passed to set up the Judicial Branch / Supreme Court. -Pay off all United States debts. (money owed) Hamilton suggested placing taxes on various goods in the United States. Whiskey Rebellion (1794), a group of Pennsylvania farmers protest against tax on whiskey. Washington sends in the U. S. military to crush the rebellion. Showed the Federal Government power over the States. Hamilton also wanted to create a National Bank for the United States it would handle all financial transactions and provide a stable currency. Thomas Jefferson was against Hamilton’s ideas.
A NEW NATION NOTES 1. The Federalist Era - Dealing with Great Britain. The French were at war with Great Britain. Washington issued a Proclamation of Neutrality, prohibiting U. S. involvement in their war. The British were harassing and impressing (capturing and force them to serve) U. S. sailors and ships. John Jay reached an agreement called Jay’s Treaty that prevented a war with Great Britain.
A NEW NATION NOTES 1. The Federalist Era Washington was considered a Federalist–someone who believed in a strong federal or national government, later the term meant someone who supported Washington. Another party or group challenged the Federalist and were called the Democratic – Republican or just Republicans. The Republicans believed in a more limited government, more states rights. In 1796, John Adams (Federalist) was elected 2 nd President, his Vice-President was Thomas Jefferson (Republican), this was the beginning of the two party system in the United States.
A NEW NATION NOTES 1. The Federalist Era John Adams had served 2 terms as Washington’s Vice President. Major events during Adams’s term: The XYZ Affair France was mad at U. S. for not supporting them and for Jay’s Treaty. The French seized (took) goods sent from U. S. . Adams sent a group to France to work out an agreement, the French sent 3 men to try and force a bribe from the group, this led to a scandal, called the XYZ Affair and led to an undeclared war with France called the Quasi – War (1798 – 1800).
A NEW NATION NOTES 1. The Federalist Era Alien and Sedition Acts The Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) were a collection of laws passed by the Federalist controlled Congress and John Adams. The laws restricted immigration (people coming into the U. S. ) and punished those who spoke against the country. Many Americans turned against Adams and the Federalist for passing these laws.
A NEW NATION NOTES 2. Thomas Jefferson The election of 1800, ended in a tie in the Electoral College System (method used to elect the President). According to the U. S. Constitution, the House of Representatives chooses the President. The House of Representatives selected Thomas Jefferson (Republican). This election marked the first transfer of political power from one party to another.
A NEW NATION NOTES 2. Thomas Jefferson reduced taxes and reduced the size of the federal government. Louisiana Purchase The emperor (king) of France, Napoleon Bonaparte needed money. In 1803, the U. S. would buy the Louisiana Territory for $15 million dollars. Called the Louisiana Purchase it doubled the size of the U. S. and is considered a great bargain. $. 03 cents per acre
A NEW NATION NOTES 2. Thomas Jefferson Lewis and Clark Jefferson sent two explorers, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark (1804), to explore and document the new land. After 18 months they reached the Pacific Ocean. They helped to open up the west for further exploration and development.
A NEW NATION NOTES 3. War of 1812 Causes of the War of 1812 The British and French were fighting in Europe (1803) and the U. S. wanted to remain neutral (not support a side). Both sides began to attack U. S. trade ships. The U. S. placed an embargo (no trade) with all foreign nations, but that didn’t work. Britain continued to attack shipping interests and forced U. S. sailors into serving in the British Navy this was called impressment.
A NEW NATION NOTES 3. War of 1812 Causes of the War of 1812 – continued James Madison became the 4 th President in 1808. He had to deal with foreign problems and a growing tension with Native Americans in newly formed territories like Ohio and Indiana. In 1812, Madison, encouraged by many leaders in Congress called the “War Hawks”, asked Congress to declare war on Great Britain and its Native American allies.
A NEW NATION NOTES 3. War of 1812 After was declared, the U. S. began to organize its small army and naval ships. The U. S. had some early victories near the Great Lakes region, into parts of Canada. The U. S. Navy and Privateers (private ships) captured many British ships throughout the war. After France was defeated in 1814, the British could turn all of its military attention towards America.
A NEW NATION NOTES 3. War of 1812 Attack on Washington D. C. In 1813 the British had begun a blockade (stopping supplies) in the Chesapeake Bay. The British attacked the nations capital of Washington D. C. in August 1814, destroying government building including the Library of Congress, the Capitol, and the White House. Dolly Madison (first lady) saved many valuables from the White House.
A NEW NATION NOTES 3. War of 1812 Attack on Washington D. C. The British moved onto Baltimore (MD). American forces were ready at Fort Mc. Henry and drove back the British. There Francis Scott Key wrote a poem that became our national anthem “Star – Spangled Banner” about this battle. After this defeat the British realized the war was becoming too long and costly.
A NEW NATION NOTES 3. War of 1812 Treaty of Ghent The official end to the war came with the Treaty of Ghent (Belgium) in December 1814, neither side gained or lost any land. Battle of New Orleans Before word of the Treaty of Ghent reached the U. S. , a major battle took place at the port city of New Orleans. Andrew Jackson lead outnumbered - American forces over the British. Jackson becomes a national hero and later the 7 th President.
A NEW NATION NOTES 4. Era of Good Feeling James Monroe, a Revolutionary War Patriot and founding father was elected 5 th President and would serve two terms from 1816 – 1824, this time is called the Era of Good Feeling, because of the peace in the U. S. but a lot of national problems were beginning to start.
A NEW NATION NOTES 4. Era of Good Feeling Sectionalism Citizens in the different regions or areas (South, North, West) in the U. S. started to disagree over taxes, a national bank, internal improvements (canals / roads) and slavery this was called Sectionalism. Missouri Compromise The Missouri Compromise (1820) allowed Missouri to became a slave state and Maine to become a free state. The country was beginning to become divided over the question of slavery in the U. S. .
A NEW NATION NOTES 4. Era of Good Feeling U. S. Growth As the U. S. population grew and more people moved west of the Appalachian Mountains, better a quicker forms of transportation were needed. The National Road was built by the Federal Government connecting Maryland across Illinois to the Mississippi River.
A NEW NATION NOTES 4. Era of Good Feeling U. S. Growth - continued Steamboat travel on Americas large rivers became a cheap and effective way to transport goods. Canals (artificial waterways) were built connecting waterways. The Erie Canal system help to connect the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes and was a major accomplishment linking the east to the west. Pioneers or settlers traveled further west establishing cities, new states were eventually created from these areas.
A NEW NATION NOTES 4. Era of Good Feeling After the War of 1812, the U. S. and Great Britain agreed on a clear, demilitarized (no armies there) border with Canada. The U. S. also got Florida from Spain. Monroe Doctrine Concerned over European countries involvement in North and South America. President James Monroe issued a statement, later known as the Monroe Doctrine. It told European Countries to stay out of colonizing in North and South America. This Foreign Policy (how we deal with foreign countries) decision has the Western Hemisphere relatively quiet from European interests.
A NEW NATION NOTES 5. Age of Jackson Andrew Jackson After losing a close election in 1824, Andrew Jackson was elected 7 th President and served from 1828 – 1836. He was a Patriot, a war hero and a “common man”. Jackson help to begin the Democratic Party. Spoils System Jackson fired many government workers and replaced them with his supporters this practice became known as the Spoils System. “To the Victory belongs the Spoils”
A NEW NATION NOTES 5. Age of Jackson Trail of Tears In 1830, A. Jackson pushed Congress to pass the Indian Removal Act – it could force the removal of Native Americans to the newly created Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). The Cherokee Indians living in Georgia refused and took their case to the U. S. Supreme Court (Worcester vs Georgia) and won. However, Jackson ignored the ruling and by 1838, the Cherokees and other Native American groups had been forcible removed from their lands, approximately 5, 000 died on the Trail of Tears.
A NEW NATION NOTES 5. Age of Jackson decides to not run for a third term of office and his Vice-President Martin Van Buren is elected in 1836. Unfortunately for Van Buren was the Panic of 1837, a serve economic depression (business and employment drops), he did little to stop the economic problems and lost the 1840 election to William Henry Harrison served as President for just 31 days – the shortest term of any President.
A NEW NATION NOTES 6. Manifest Destiny After the Panic of 1837, many Americans were looking for a fresh start. The “Great Migration” involved thousands of pioneers who traveled to the west following the Oregon Trail. Manifest Destiny The term Manifest Destiny was used to describe the idea that it was Americas destiny to extend its boundaries all the way to the Pacific Ocean. From the original 13 colonies, then the Louisiana Purchase, adding states like Florida, Texas and Oregon, and the Southwest after the Mexican – American War, the U. S. fulfilled its destiny.
A NEW NATION NOTES 6. Manifest Destiny Texas was originally a Spanish Territory. Mexico began controlling the area after 1821. By 1833 the people that lived in Texas wanted to be independent. Santa Anna (leader of Mexico) did not want to lose Texas.
A NEW NATION NOTES 6. Manifest Destiny Battle of the Alamo Santa Anna and his forces marched into San Antonio (TX), there they were met by a small Texan force at a small fort called the Alamo. For 12 days the Texans fought hard but were eventually overrun by the Mexican Army. During the fighting at the Alamo, Texas leaders declared their independence from Mexico creating the Republic of Texas (1836 – 1845). Texas became the 28 th State in 1845.
A NEW NATION NOTES 6. Manifest Destiny Mexican – American War President James K. Polk (1844 - 1848) wanted the area of land from Texas to California from Mexico. Polk had offered $30 million but was rejected. Mexico wanted Texas back and sent troops to take it. Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor and his army to the border with Mexico, shots were fired. The U. S. officially declared war on May 11, 1846.
A NEW NATION NOTES 6. Manifest Destiny Mexican – American War- continued U. S. forces secured the border with Mexico, captured the capital of Santa Fe (NM), and fully controlled California (1847). The Mexican government surrendered to U. S. General Winfield Scott after his forces took Mexico City in September 1847. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo officially ends the war. the U. S. gained control of the Southwest (New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada). The U. S. will buy the Southern part of Arizona from Mexico for $10 million called the Gadsden Purchase. This area will complete the entire land area of the contiguous (connected) U. S. .
A NEW NATION NOTES 7. A Changing U. S. (1820's – 1860's) The 1800's saw many innovations (new ideas) in the way Americans worked, traveled and communicated. Industries Factories powered by steam and water began to replace workers. Mass productions of goods was becoming common. Transportation Improved canals connecting lakes and rivers made carrying goods cheaper and quicker. Railroads linked major cities by the 1860’s.
A NEW NATION NOTES 7. A Changing U. S. (1820's – 1860's) Communication In 1844, Samuel Morse, an inventor, began the use of the telegraph. Telegraph lines connected all parts of the U. S. , a speedy form of communicating across the U. S. Is established. Agriculture Improvements in farming like the reaper – a device that quickly harvests wheat, invented by Cyrus Mc. Cormick, help to improve food production. North - Factories Immigration from Europe increased dramatically in the mid 1800's. As the Northern states focused their economy on factories and manufacturing, immigrants were willing to at these jobs for low wages and long hours.
A NEW NATION NOTES 7. A Changing U. S. (1820's – 1860's) South – Agriculture was thriving in the South. Large Plantations needed more slaves to run their farms. By the 1860's, the economy and lifestyles in the South and North were becoming divided. Slavery The practice of slavery or servitude had existed in the U. S. since the 1600's. Abolitionist (people against the practice of slavery) like Fredrick Douglas and Sojourner Truth were African American who worked hard to end slavery. Douglas, an ex-slave, and Truth both became powerful, influential speakers and writers for the Abolitionist cause.
A NEW NATION NOTES 7. A Changing U. S. (1820's – 1860's) The Role of Women As the role of women was changing – women asked for greater role in society, more rights, education, the work force, and obtaining suffrage or the right to vote. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony were two leaders of the Suffragists Movement. In 1920 – the 19 th Amendment finally gave woman the right to vote.
A NEW NATION NOTES 8. Beginnings of the Civil War The Compromise of 1850 In 1850, the question of slavery became a National debate. The Compromise of 1850, added California a free state (no slavery), new states could have slavery, states promised to return fugitive (runaway) slaves to the state they were from (Fugitive Slave Act), and Washington D. C. would end the slave trade. This Compromise was a temporary fix to a growing problem.
A NEW NATION NOTES 8. Beginnings of the Civil War Dred Scott was a slave in Missouri (slave state), he moved to Illinois (free state) for a short time, then back to Missouri. Scott took his case to the Supreme Court arguing that since he lived in a free state he was free. Dred Scott lost his case - the court ruled an enslaved person was not a citizen but property. The Dred Scott decision protected / allowed the practice of slavery.
A NEW NATION NOTES 8. Beginnings of the Civil War Succession The election of 1860 introduced a new political group called the Republican Party, a mix of other parties, with an antislavery platform (position). Abraham Lincoln of Illinois, was elected the first Republican President in 1860. Shortly after the election, South Carolina seceded (left) from the United States.
A NEW NATION NOTES 8. Beginnings of the Civil War Succession – continued Over the next few months Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia left the Union / United States. One month before Lincoln is inaugurated (sworn in) on March 4, 1861, the Southern states wrote a new Constitution creating the Confederate States of America. Jefferson Davis was elected their President and Richmond, Virginia was established as their capital. Lincoln was faced with a difficult decision – “Preserve the Union” or “let the South leave”.
A NEW NATION NOTES 8. Beginnings of the Civil War Fort Sumter was a U. S. fort on an island off the coast of South Carolina. The fort was low on supplies, so Lincoln sent supplies to the fort, before they got there Jefferson Davis ordered Confederate troops to attack on April 12, 1861 – the start of the Civil War. After the Union forces were defeated, more states including Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas joined the Confederacy.
A NEW NATION NOTES 9. The Civil War The North The United States (Union / North) had many advantages over the South: manufacturing and exporting of goods, population, established government and more railroads. The Union strategy for a quick victory included: - A blockade of Southern ports. - Control the use of the Mississippi River. - Capture the capital of the South, Richmond.
A NEW NATION NOTES 9. The Civil War The South The Confederate States (Confederacy / South) had the advantage of many skilled military leaders, a feeling of fighting for independence, and “ home field advantage” – since much of the war was fought in the South. The Confederate strategy was to fight a defensive war and wait for the Union to tire of war. The South also expected help from Great Britain and France who they had supplied cotton, a major export of the South.
A NEW NATION NOTES 9. The Civil War 1 st Battle of Bull Run July 15, 1861, Union forces marched from Washington D. C. toward Richmond (VA). Union and Confederate troops fought at a small river called Bull Run. Union forces attacked, but were stopped by General “Stonewall” Jackson, then the South counterattacked with the Northern Army retreating back to D. C. . An easy a quick victory was not going to happen.
A NEW NATION NOTES 9. The Civil War Northern Generals The Union Army lacked strong military leaders in the beginning of the Civil War. Lincoln was upset at the lack of success of Generals like Winfield Scott and George Mc. Clellan. Ulysses S Grant Ulysses S. Grant was a West Point graduate, and veteran of the Mexican American War. He left the army and rejoined during the Civil War, in 1864, he was selected as the lead General of the Northern Army. Grant accepted the surrender of Robert E. Lee at Appomattox that ended the Civil War.
A NEW NATION NOTES 9. The Civil War Robert E. Lee was a West Point (U. S. Army College) graduate. He lived in Virginia, had served in the U. S. Army, but resigned when Virginia joined the Confederacy. Lee commanded the Army of Northern Virginia and would later be promoted General over the entire Confederate Army. Lee was known as a brilliant, inspiring general and for taking strategic chances on the battlefield.
A NEW NATION NOTES 9. The Civil War 1862 In 1862, the war was becoming a stalemate (neither side had an advantage) with victories and losses for both sides. The South wins at the 2 nd Battle at Bull Run. The North wins battles /begins to control the West. Battle of Antietam The Battle of Antietam (PA) in September 1862, was the bloodiest single day in U. S. History with over 20, 000 soldiers killed. Southern forces retreated back to Virginia.
A NEW NATION NOTES 9. The Civil War 1863 Five days after Antietam, Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, that would take effect on January 1 st, 1863. The Emancipation Proclamation was a presidential decree (order) freeing all slaves in the south. This helped to give new meaning to what the North was fighting for. The Confederacy had two strong victories at Fredericksburg (VA) and Chancellorsville (VA), believing 1 more victory might gain them European support and aid them to victory. Lee decided to send his forces north into Pennsylvania.
A NEW NATION NOTES 9. The Civil War July 1863, was when the tide of the war turned toward the North. The Battle of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania becomes one of the most important battles of the war and a major victory for the North. The Battle of Gettysburg Union and Confederate forces fought for 4 days (July 1 st – 4 th, 1863) at Gettysburg (PA). The Union forces held the high ground, Southern forces made charges but were held back. Finally, Confederate General George Pickett ordered thousands of troops to attack the middle line of the battlefield called “Pickett’s Charge” it didn’t work and the South suffered a major defeat.
A NEW NATION NOTES 9. The Civil War The South lost control of the Mississippi River, after the Battle of Vicksburg. The Battle of Vicksburg Union forces under Grants’ command attacked Vicksburg, Mississippi. For 47 days, they surrounded and bombed the city creating a siege or blockade. Gettysburg Address On November 19, 1863 Lincoln dedicated the Gettysburg battlefield as a National Cemetery. He gave a 2 minute speech which he paid tribute to the soldiers and gave a vision to the nation. The speech is called the Gettysburg Address.
A NEW NATION NOTES 9. The Civil War 1864 By 1864 Union forces had surrounded the South, the Union blockade of Southern ports was effective, and the North controlled the Mississippi River. Grant devised a plan of attacking near Richmond and sending General William T. Sherman to attack the deep south. The Wilderness Campaign is Grant’s attempt to capture Richmond (VA) the capital of the South. From May – June, 1864 Union forces marched south, 3 major battles were fought with both sides taking heavy losses. For the next 9 months, Grant lay siege on Petersburg a small city near Richmond. Northern forces took Richmond in April, 1865.
A NEW NATION NOTES 9. The Civil War Sherman’s March to the Sea William T. Sherman used a plan called total war, to completely destroy land buildings. Once Union forces had taken Atlanta, Sherman had his men march to the Atlantic, along the way using his total war strategy of destruction this is known as Sherman’s March to the Sea. Surrender at Appomattox Court House On April 9, 1865 Robert E. Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House (VA), Grant showed respect and compassion to the South in accepting their surrender.
A NEW NATION NOTES 9. The Civil War The Cost of War Over 600, 000 soldiers died in the Civil War, making it the deadliest in U. S. History. The War had destroyed much of the South and it would take years to rebuild it. The Civil War strengthened the power of the Federal Government over the states and end the practice of slavery. A nation divided was now reunited but many problems still existed.