• A multi-syllable word has a prominent syllable. This is called a stressed syllable. Stressed syllable is longer in duration, higher in pitch, and louder in volume. Duration is the primary attribute to the prominence of a syllable. • Except for the compounds, stressed syllables in words with more than 2 syllables never stand next to each other (Stressed syllables and weak syllables alternate).
When a word has more than one syllable, one is more prominent than the others. When this happens, we say that the syllable has a stress, or that it is stressed. In the following examples, stressed syllables are expressed with boldface. word pattern tea. cher • . beau. ti. ful • . . un. der. stand . . • con. ti. nue . • . con. ti. nu. a. tion . • . black. board • •
When a syllable is stressed, it is pronounced; longer in duration higher in pitch, and louder in volume
Exercise Group the following words so that they match the patterns in the table. word list infamous banana calendar statement dinosaur imply cluster kingdom enjoyment mountain eternal countless excel passage before defeated begin arrive worry history pattern word • . . • • . . . • .
the nouns typically have the first syllable stressed, whereas verbs have the stressed second syllable. 90% two-syllable nouns, and 60% two-syllable verbs follow this pattern. Look at the following three syllable words. Consider the stress patterns. Three-syllable words • . . . • in. stru. ment com. mer. cial ar. ti. choke ca. len. dar va. nil. la hur. ri. cane cu. ri. ous de. ve. lop ap. pe. tite sen. ti. ment as. to. nish cro. co. dile do. cu. ment op. po. nent con. gre. gate
Basically, stressed words are considered CONTENT WORDSsuch as Nouns e. g. kitchen, Peter (most) principal verbs e. g. visit, construct Adjectives e. g. beautiful, interesting Adverbs e. g. often, carefully
Non-stressed words are considered FUNCTION WORDSsuch as Determiners e. g. the, a, some, a few Auxiliary verbs e. g. don't, am, can, were Prepositions e. g. before, next to, opposite Conjunctions e. g. but, while, as Pronouns e. g. they, she, us
Using suffixes to predict stress (A) Stress the suffix itself: - e employee refugee trainee referee e - e engineer career volunteer e r - e Chinese Japanese Portuguese s e - i q unique antique technique u e
Stress the syllable immediately before the suffix: - ial memorial financial artificial essential - ual visual unusual intellectual individual - ian Canadian vegetarian pedestrian politician - sion explosion occasion conclusion permission - tion definition production situation qualification
ient ancient sufficient efficient deficient - cious delicious conscious suspicious judicious - tious ambitious cautious superstitious conscientious - ic academic energetic fantastic terrific - ible edible flexible incredible impossible
- ity ability necessity publicity possibility - ify classify terrify humidify personify - logy biology sociology anthropology psychology - graphy geography autobiography photography pornography - meter kilometer parameter speedometer thermometer