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A L G A E MATA KULIAH : BOTANI TUMBUHAN RENDAH KODE M. K/SKS : 4314 -2 -17 -3 -2/2
Etymology and study The singular alga is the Latin word for a particular seaweed and retains that meaning in English. Since Algae has become a biological classification, alga can also mean one classification under Algae, parallel to a fungus being a species of fungi, a plant being a species of plant, and so on.
Classification Basically algae are classified base its size becomes: Mikroalga Have very small size until to see needed microscope aid. Makroalga 1) Have size that it might seem by naked eye. Makroalga are often called sea grass (seaweeds).
2) Alga have specific features in group that beranekaragam as [the] organism fotosintetik. Variety at alga grouped in divisions, later, Philip Sze (1993) conduct division of alga division that based to the :
1. Pigment in plastida Pigments plays important role in course of photosynthesis Pigment at alga existed on plastida. Plastida there is 2 kinds of that is : 1. Chloroplast (carrier of chlorophyll colour substance) 2. Cromoplast (other carrier of colour substance) Types khloroplas is differentiated 3 groups : 1. Rhodophycean chloroplast Tilakoid are disjointed and fikobilisom on the surface tilakoid 2. Chlorophycean chloroplast Heap tilakoid and pyrenoid on the surface 3. Chrysophycean chloroplast Tilakoid in 3 groups, that is reticulum endoplasma, ribosome and outside surface is existed nuclei
2. Food Reserve at alga is carbohydrate content -- glucose polymers with link consist of: extract (a-1, 4 Glucose) and laminarin, chrysolaminarin/ leucosin, paramilon (ß-1, 3 Glucoses).
3. Cell rilem bane Component Alga Cell rilem bane prokaryotik consist ofs mucopeptida and pectin. Existed on Cyanobakteria and Prochlorophyta. Cell rilem bane look likes good eubakteria structure ribosome and chromosome. Alga Cell rilem bane eukaryotik consist ofs cellulose and pectin. At Chrysophyta often contain silicate. Acidulous Phaeophyta algin. There are 6 alga divisions that its cell rilem bane eukaryotik for example: Divisio Chlorophyta, Pyrophyta (dinoflagellata), Cryptophyta (Chryptomonad), Euglenophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta.
Chlorophyceae Appearance: non-flagellated unicells, flagellates, filaments, colonies, coenobia, sarcinoid cell aggregations, siphonous forms Cell division always involves closed mitosis and a phycoplast (microtubuli parallel to the division plane) Plasmodesmata are present in species that build cell wall by Golgi vesicle depositions but are lacking in species that divide by furrowing Sexual reproduction by isogamy, anisogamy, or oogamy result in thick-walled, spined hypnozygotes (zygospores); zygotes serve as „resting spores“ and germinate by meiosis Asexual reproduction by › Zoospores: flagellates with eye-spot and contractile vacuole › Aplanospores: non-flagellated cells with contractile vacuole › Autospores: non-flagellated cells lacking contractile vacuole Terrestrial species predominantly form autospores (no liquid medium)
Ex : Chlamydomonas: biflagellate unicell with cuplike chloroplast, very common; 500 species in the genus Major model system for genetic and physiological research Asexual reproduction by 2 -16 mitotic cells
Structure of Chlamydomonas
Chrysophyceae This is the brown algae group golden. specieses Chrysophycophyta a large part of berflagels, but some of which ameboid by existence of extension pseudopodial its protoplasm. form this ameboid can swallow food in form of particle constructively pseudopodia. Reproduction in general binary bisection but sometimes sexually and isogami.
Bacillariophyceae Because of a lot of the number in cool territorial water, then dia. This Group consist of diatom-diatom that existed either in fresh water or in brine tom is forms plankton that at most the number in Arktik. diatom can uniselular, or in form of filament and met in so many form and form. every cell contain one nucleus that reality and plastid-plastid that in form of ribbon or like smaller lens.
Euglenophyceae Euglena is a single celled eukaryotic protist which is both a plant (has chlorophyll and makes its own food) and an animal (is capable of self motion by means of a flagellar ‘tail’). Oh yes, it also has an eye spot which allows it to use light for directional purposes. Quite a problem for evolution for several reasons. While bacteria are known to be able to ‘borrow’ DNA from other bacteria, eukaryotes, because of their nucleus and stronger cell walls cannot. As we know, one cannot descend from totally disparate species.
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